Hmong Studies Virtual Library - Dissertations and Theses
Hmong-Related Dissertations and Theses Online from the University of Minnesota's Digital Conservancy
Title: Being Hmong, being American: making sense of U.S. Citizenship. Author: Annette Marie Miller-Simmons. Source: PhD Dissertation, University of Minnesota. Location: Minneapolis. Year: 2014. Additional Source Information: N.A. Pagination: 295 pages. Format: PDF
Abstract: This ethnographic case study was conducted in one 12th-grade American Government class at a public high school in a large Mid-western city. The class included 10 Hmong students, and eight of these youth agreed to participate in the study. Multiple data sources were analyzed for themes, patterns, and issues, including classroom observations and document analyses of instructional texts and American Government curriculum utilized in the observed classroom. All eight participants contributed to at least two focus group interviews, and four of these eight students completed two additional individual interviews, acting as focal contributors to this research. Two formal and various informal interviews were also conducted with the classroom teacher regarding her ideas and intentions around citizenship education for her students.Three significant findings emerged in this study. First, the American Government classroom was a space for civic and political identity construction for Hmong youth. Second, the American Government classroom was not the only active political socialization agent; Hmong youth shaped and negotiated their citizenship identities with others including family members, and in other venues like youth clubs and cultural activities. Third, Hmong youth negotiated their citizenship identities in relationship to race, gender, and class. However, as Hmong youth prepared for adult, democratic citizenship, they experienced little opportunity in their American Government course to practice ways to navigate racialization, gender issues, and economic challenge in their personal lives. Ongoing professional development is needed to help social studies educators address critical issues around race, gender, and class in their classrooms and schools, especially for immigrant students.
Title: The lived experience of second-generation Hmong American teen mothers: a phenomenological study. Author: Phoua Xiong. Source: M.A. Thesis, University of Minnesota. Location: Minneapolis. Year: 2014. Additional Source Information: N.A. Pagination: 91 pages. Format: PDF
Abstract: Research and literature tend to focus on racial groups other than Asian Americans due to their relatively statistically low teen pregnancy rates. This study aims to contribute to that gap by examining the lived experience of five second-generation Hmong American teen mothers. Using a phenomenological approach, the study found that most participants were culturally but not legally married, thus they are not counted in the statistics on teen marriages. Although participants were still teenagers, they considered themselves adults once they were culturally married and/or became mothers. In addition to carrying the responsibilities associated with the roles of wife and mother, they added another significant role in the Hmong culture—that of daughter-in-law. However, even with these demands, most participants had completed high school and were planning to pursue post-secondary degrees. Findings from the lived experiences of the participants in this study contribute to a more culturally nuanced understanding of teen motherhood and marriage and provide insights into the support that Hmong teen mothers need to be successful.
Title: Hmong American College Women’s Experiences of Parent-Child Relationships. Author: Shuling Peng. Source: PhD Dissertation, University of Minnesota. Location: Minneapolis. Year: 2013. Additional Source Information: N.A. Pagination: 138 pages. Format: PDF
Abstract: This qualitative study examines the parent-child relationships of Hmong American college women. Fourteen women in their junior or senior year from five Midwestern colleges or universities participated in the study. Symbolic interaction theory was used as a guiding framework and a phenomenological method was employed to understand the Hmong American college women's lived experiences of independence from and closeness to their parents and the perception of their role and identity in their interactions with parents. Analyses of the interviews revealed seventeen domains in total under three primary themes, including (1) I am more independent, (2) I am closer to my parents, (3) I am struggling to find a balance. The emerging developmental task for these college-age Hmong American women is to successfully negotiate roles and identities while balancing both cultures.
Title: Hmong youth arts culture: Music teaching and learning in community settings. Author: Kinh Tien Vu. Source: PhD Dissertation, University of Minnesota. Location: Minneapolis. Year: 2013. Additional Source Information: N.A. Pagination: 240 pages. Format: PDF
Abstract: Pre-service music educators are dedicated to learning the art of classroom and ensemble teaching, but they may be unaware of their ability to affect students’ thinking and music making around critical issues outside school music settings. Although numerous studies have identified a need to enhance music educators’ emphases in teacher education or music teaching in general to be inclusive of critical and democratic practices that forward students’ voices, little attention has been paid to how teachers help youth express their ideas about societal issues outside the music classroom. The purpose of this dissertation is to explore the musical art forms and activities in Hmong communities that will inform democratic education in teacher preparation programs. Focusing on rap, spoken word poetry, and lyrical songs of ten Hmong youth artists, three guiding questions will be explored: (a) In what kinds of musical activities do youths participate? (b) For what purposes do Hmong youths create their arts? and (c) How might what Hmong do in their community inform music teacher preparation? Music educators who bring together various teaching and learning opportunities, critical pedagogy, and democratic action will forward students’ voices and help them become change agents for themselves, their schools, and communities. In this ethnographic study, I found that given opportunities to create raps, spoken word poems, and songs, Hmong youth become proactive citizens who advance the tenets of a free and democratic society in their communities when they express their ideas centered on personal, group, social, and political issues that affect them. The results of this study demonstrate that music teacher preparers will serve their pre-service music educators by forging a new, critical, and democratic practice that might be learned from community musicians.
Title: Methadone population pharmacokinetics: toward understanding the dose-response relationship in the treatment of opiate addiction. Author: Gavin Bryce-Samuel Bart. Source: PhD Dissertation, University of Minnesota. Location: Minneapolis. Year: 2013. Additional Source Information: N.A. Pagination: 209 pages. Format: PDF
Abstract: Methadone is a synthetic opiate agonist that is highly effective in the treatment of opiate addiction. When given as a long-term therapy, methadone maintenance reduces morbidity and mortality associated with opiate addiction. It is thus considered an “essential” medication by the World Health Organization. The benefits of methadone maintenance in the treatment of opiate addiction are well established. Predicting treatment response for a given individual, however, remains difficult. While methadone dose is generally associated with treatment outcome, large interstudy and interindividual variability in plasma concentrations of methadone have made it difficult to link dose response to pharmacokinetic parameters. This thesis explores characteristics of methadone maintained patients and develops a population pharmacokinetic model that identifies variables associated with methadone pharmacokinetic parameters. Chapter 1 provides a general review of the three Food and Drug Administration approved pharmacotherapeutic agents for the treatment of opiate dependence. Chapter 2 reviews the clinical pharmacology of methadone as used in the treatment of opiate dependence. Chapter 3 introduces us to the Hmong and their paradoxically exceptional treatment outcome in methadone maintenance on lower doses of methadone than their non-Hmong counterparts. This retrospective study helps form the hypothesis that their better treatment outcome is related to greater methadone exposure.The results of this population pharmacokinetic study and the psychosocial differences between Hmong and non-Hmong are presented in Chapters 4 and 5, respectively. We found that the lower methadone dose requirement is explained by higher apparent bioavailability of methadone in Hmong. Other influences on methadone pharmacokinetics, more specifically clearance, include age, body mass index, and single nucleotide polymorphisms in the ABCB1 and CYP2B6 genes. While the potential for culture to influence methadone treatment outcome is acknowledged, there remain sufficient grounds to hypothesize a significant biological (i.e., pharmacokinetic and/or pharmacodynamic) influence.
Title: What does it mean to be a “Good Parent” according to Hmong parents?: a phenomenological study. Author: Dung Minh Mao. Source: M.A. Thesis, University of Minnesota. Location: Minneapolis. Year: 2012. Additional Source Information: N.A. Pagination: 79 pages. Format: PDF
Abstract: The current study examines what constitutes good parents in the Hmong community in Minnesota. Nineteen parents (12 mothers and 7 fathers) participated in the study, and they represented 47.4% first-generation, 42.1% second-generation, and 10.5% 1.5-generation. Phenomenology was employed and symbolic interaction theory was utilized as a guiding framework to understand the meaning participants attached to their parenting role. Analyses of the interviews revealed seven domains and 46 themes that constitute good parents, including (1) provision, (2) involvement, (3) communication, (4) characteristics of good parents, (5) community perception, (6) motivation for being good parents, and (7) good parent education. Implications of the study and future research efforts are also discussed.
Title: Cervical cancer screening behavior of Hmong women: a social network analysis. Author: Shweta Shweta. Source: PhD Dissertation, University of Minnesota. Location: Minneapolis. Year: 2012. Additional Source Information: N.A. Pagination: 150 pages. Format: PDF
Abstract: This study examined the relationship between health and cervical cancer networks of Hmong American women and their cervical cancer screening practices. Incidence of cervical cancer and cervical cancer mortality rates are high for Hmong American women (Mills, Yang & Riordan, 2005; Ross, Xie, Kiffmeyer, Bushhouse & Robinson, 2003). Cervical cancer mortality rates for Hmong American women are three times higher than Asian American and Pacific Islander women and four times higher than non-Hispanic White women (Yang, Mills & Riordan, 2005). Despite high cancer related mortality rates, the utilization of cervical cancer screening is low (Yang, Mills & Dodge, 2006). Regular screening is important as it helps to detect cancer early when the treatment is most effective (Tanne, 2012). Barriers to cancer screening in the Hmong community include a lack of education, low income, cultural beliefs, language, traditional health practices, and mistrust of the Western health system (Lee & Vang, 2010). Hmong people value social cohesion and community living and often consult community members for making health related decisions (Barrett et. al., 1998). Using network analysis and logistic regression, this study explored the relationship between specific characteristics of the cervical cancer network and cervical cancer screening practices of Hmong American women. The health networks of study participants included all friends, family, health care providers, or co-workers with whom they had discussed their health in the last one year. Likewise, cervical cancer networks included everyone with whom the study participants had discussed cervical cancer in the last one year. Analysis found that Hmong American women who had a cervical cancer network were more likely to be aware of pap tests, receive pap tests and be aware of human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccines than Hmong American women who did not have a cervical cancer network. Having a cervical cancer network was not significantly associated with receiving HPV vaccines or Hmong American woman's perceived need for cancer screening. When controlled for demographic variables, a cervical cancer network was not found to be a significant predictor of cancer screening practices. With regard to characteristics of members within the cervical cancer network, education was found to be significantly associated with the awareness of HPV vaccines. Analysis also found that income, number of years in the United States and ability to speak English were significant predictors of Hmong American women having a cervical cancer network. Further, income, education, and having a regular health care provider were also significantly associated with cervical cancer screening practices of Hmong American women. It is important that practitioners and policy makers use social networks as a resource to improve the utilization of screening services. Programs for encouraging screening should target clients and their networks. For developing culturally appropriate screening programs, policy makers should consult local leaders. Programs developed in consultation with community may be efficacious in convincing Hmong American women to utilize services regularly (Lee & Vang, 2010).
Title: Sociophonetics of Hmong American English in Minnesota. Author: Eden A. Kaiser Source: PhD Dissertation, University of Minnesota. Location: Minneapolis. Year: 2011. Additional Source Information: N.A. Pagination: 152 pages. Format: PDF
Abstract: This dissertation is a sociophonetic analysis of the English spoken by Hmong Americans living in the Twin Cities" of Minneapolis and St. Paul, Minnesota. The Twin Cities has the largest urban population of Hmong Americans in the United States. Through studies of production and perception of vowels involved in sound changes, I investigate whether Hmong Americans, a relatively new ethnic group in the United States|have established any elements of an ethnic dialect of English that communicates an identity that is uniquely Hmong American. Sound changes are particularly fruitful objects of sociophonetic study as they provide a spectrum of potential indexical variables for speakers exposed to those sound changes. I examine Hmong Americans' participation in three sound changes: the Northern Cities Shift, the low back merger, and fronting of the high back vowel (/u/ or goose). Their degrees of participation in those sound changes are compared to age-matched European Americans from the same area. It was expected that the inferred tight-knit nature of Hmong Americans' social networks would cause a slower uptake of current regional and supra-regional sound changes versus the comparatively looser networks of many European Americans in the Twin Cities. Furthermore, the target population should presumably experience some in uence in their English from the Hmong language. Crucially for this study, the Hmong language has phonemic nasal vowels whereas English does not. This L2 in uence of phonemic nasal vowels was hypothesized to emerge in Hmong Americans' English as less nasalization overall, and to decrease the likelihood that they will engage in the Northern Cities Shift. The results of the production study show that European American speakers seem to be participating in one supra-regional sound change, the fronting of the goose vowel, to a greater extent than in the past, and to a greater extent than Hmong Americans. Two other sound changes, the Northern Cities Shift (a regional change) and the low back merger (a supra-regional change), show inconclusive evidence of adoption by either EA speakers or HA speakers. The perception study, which was conducted with a new set of participants, aimed to uncover whether phonetic dierences between Hmong Americans' and European Americans' vowel pronunciations are actually detectable by others. Words recorded during eldwork were rated on a visual analog scale by listeners on several dierent dimensions of speakers' social characteristics, including ethnicity. It was found that although certain expected phonetic dierences were not used to make judgments of speakers' ethnicities, other phonetic dierences, some expected and some not, did indeed predict listeners' judgments of speaker ethnicity. Listeners seemed to use either formant values or vowel nasalization (or sometimes both) to judge speaker ethnicity, depending on vowel class, listener ethnicity, and listener birthplace. Taken together, the results of the two studies provide evidence that Hmong Americans' vowel pronunciations are not simply Hmong-in uenced imitations of vowels as spoken by European Americans, and that listeners, especially other Hmong American listeners, can use these complex yet systematic phonetic patterns to make accurate decisions about speakers' ethnicities.
Title: Hmong baby carriers in Minnesota: a material culture study. Author: Mary Alice Chaney. Source: PhD Dissertation, University of Minnesota. Location: Minneapolis. Year: 2011. Additional Source Information: N.A. Pagination: 154 pages. Format: PDF
Abstract: This study of Hmong baby carriers in Minnesota demonstrates the value of studying objects for what they convey about the people and the culture that make and use them. Hmong baby carriers have many functions, seen and unseen, that when examined and analyzed further an understanding and knowledge of Hmong culture in transition. The Hmong living in Minnesota came to the United States as refugees from the war in Southeast Asia. They left their highland homes in Laos to wait out the conflict in refugee camps in Thailand. But returning home and to the life they longed for became impossible. So many Hmong found themselves living in the harsh climate of Minnesota. The first Hmong started arriving in 1976, eventually St. Paul became home for one of the largest populations of Hmong in the United States. Life has brought many challenges but the Hmong continue to adapt to change and thrive. The McClung Fleming model for artifact analysis guided this study. The two part process identifies basic properties of the object and analyzes those properties through identification, evaluation, cultural analysis, and interpretation. Hmong baby carriers were brought by the 1st generation of Hmong immigrants to the United States as functional objects with symbolic and contextual meaning. Today Hmong baby carriers are still part of the cultural landscape but with added symbolism and contextual meaning for the 1.5 and 2nd generation of Hmong.
Title: Fourth grade Hmong students’ reading proficiency. Author: Megan C. Mahowald. Source: PhD Dissertation, University of Minnesota. Location: Minneapolis. Year: 2011. Additional Source Information: N.A. Pagination: 162 pages. Format: PDF
Abstract: The No Child Left Behind Act mandates that all students be proficient in reading by 2013. Researchers and practitioners alike have noticed that Hmong students do not achieve as well as their monolingual peers and other bilingual students. Linguistic factors alone do not account for this discrepancy, but rather a number of sociocultural factors are likely at work (Au, 1998). The current two-part mixed methods study is designed to explore factors of reading development and proficiency of fourth grade Hmong students in one large, urban school district. Part one of this study explores the reading proficiency of fourth grade Hmong students through a quantitative analysis of standardized reading assessment scores. I determine what percentage of Hmong students are reaching proficiency standards using frequency data and complete one-way analysis of variance to compare Hmong students with other linguistic groups. Part two of this study utilizes case study method to explore the relationship between oral language, reading proficiency and self-perceptions of ten fourth grade Hmong students. I selected five students who were reading at a fourth grade level and five students who were reading below grade level. I complete oral language assessment, reading assessment, interviews and classroom observations. I analyzed the data at the group level (at and below grade level) to determine discrepancies in performance. I also analyzed data at the individual level to create six profiles of reading proficiency. It is important that as teachers and researchers we learn all we can about how to assess and support oral language skills, reading proficiency and uncover the complex identities of Hmong students.
Title: Themes in the career development of 1.5 generation Hmong American women. Author: Ava Yang. Source: PhD Dissertation, University of Minnesota. Location: Minneapolis. Year: 2010. Additional Source Information: N.A. Pagination: 156 pages. Format: PDF
Abstract: Research on the career development of Asian Americans have typically aggregated the diverse Asian ethnic groups as one group for study and have employed cross-cultural comparison methods often based on a deficit model that overlook important within group differences and ignore the subjective experience of the individual. This qualitative study set out to understand the ways in which 1.5 Hmong American women have experienced, understood and have navigated their career development processes, and sought to answer the questions: How do 1.5 generation Hmong American women understand and make meaning of the term "career"; what are the themes and characteristics of the career development process for 1.5 generation Hmong American women; and what factors influence the career development processes of 1.5 generation Hmong American women? Twenty participants were interviewed using a semi-structured interview guide. The interviews were transcribed and analyzed using principles of inductive analyses and modified CQR method. Six domains and 31 themes emerged from the analyses. The domains that emerged were: 1) Career Conceptualization, 2) Self and Career Actualization, 3) Family, Cultural, and Gender Expectations, 4) Systems of Support: Family, Role Models/Mentors, and a Sense of Community, 5) Overcoming Challenges and Barriers, and 6) Resilience. Implications and recommendations based on the findings were also made.
Title: Promoting a cancer screening program to Hmong women in Minnesota: the role of source matching and acculturation. Author: Laura Michelle Friedenburg. Source: MA Thesis, University of Minnesota. Location: Minneapolis. Year: 2010. Additional Source Information: N.A. Pagination: 100 pages. Format: PDF
Abstract: The present research assesses the effect of source matching and level of acculturation on Hmong women’s interest in a free cancer screening program, their intended behavior to both share the message and call the program, as well as their evaluation of the message. Results show few significant main effects and no moderation effects. Results are discussed, problems are addressed, and future directions to encourage cancer screening in the Hmong population are recommended.
Title: Dreaming of home, dreaming of land: displacements and Hmong transnational politics, 1975-2010. Author: Her Vang. Source: PhD Dissertation, University of Minnesota. Location: Minneapolis. Year: 2010. Additional Source Information: N.A. Pagination: 469 pages. Format: PDF
Abstract: This dissertation documents the historical development of the transnational politics of the Hmong, a people who came to the United States as refugees from the Vietnam War, from 1975 when the Hmong left Laos to 2010 when the Lao PDR government rejected Hmong leader Vang Pao's request to return to Laos. Drawing on archival research, ethnographic fieldwork, and oral history interviews in Laos, Thailand, and the United States, it interrogates how and why the Hmong diaspora continued to engage in Lao national politics from exile. What role did the Hmong diaspora play in the ongoing fighting in Laos? In what ways, under what conditions, and to what extent did the Hmong diaspora transcend domestic political systems and engage in non-domestic (i.e. international or transnational) ones? How did the bilateral and multilateral relations between the United States and Asian nation-states, particularly Laos, Vietnam, China, and Thailand, affect Hmong transnational politics and the political, economic, and social status of Hmong Americans? What impact did Hmong transnational politics have on the bilateral relation between the United States and their Asian homeland of Laos? It examines the disparate political and institutional forces that shaped the rise, fall and resurgence of Hmong transnational politics, including the Sino-Vietnamese border dispute, the Communist revolution and the Second Secret War in Laos, the Communist insurgency in Thailand, and the Second Cold War, the 1996 Welfare Reform and the War on Terror in the United States. It shows that Hmong transnational politics, as a legacy of the U.S. military intervention in the Secret War in Laos in the 1960s, emerged in part to redress the human rights abuses back home and in part to rebuild broken lives and shattered communities in the diaspora. Ultimately, it argues that the Hmong failed to "liberate" Laos not only because the Hmong were divided and ambiguous about their desired goal in Laos but also because Thailand, China, and the United States solely used the Hmong to protect their own geopolitical interests. They never supported the call of the Hmong for self-determination or intended to save them from communist persecution in Laos.
Title: An investigation of contextual factors and dispositional characteristics in the career development of Hmong American and caucasian American college students: a comparison study using a social cognitive career theory perspective. Author: Zoua Chang. Source: PhD Dissertation, University of Minnesota. Location: Minneapolis. Year: 2009. Additional Source Information: N.A. Pagination: 221 pages. Format: PDF
Abstract: This study investigated race/ethnic and sex comparisons among 182 Hmong American and 198 Caucasian American college students in regards to specific career development variables. Hmong American college students reported more perceived educational and career barriers and fewer resources (e.g., career decision-making self-efficacy, family support) than did Caucasian American college students. Caucasian American female college students reported more perceived educational and career barriers and less career decision-making self-efficacy than did their male counterparts. Contrary to expectations, Hmong American female college students reported more role model support than did their male counterparts. These results suggest that relations among career variables are likely to vary by sex and race/ethnic group membership, which supports the need to investigate these relations among different minority groups.
Title: The impact of acculturation and environmental change on dietary habits, weight gain, and cultural practices among Hmong adults and children in Minnesota. Author: Lisa Franzen. Source: PhD Dissertation, University of Minnesota. Location: Minneapolis. Year: 2009. Additional Source Information: N.A. Pagination: 314 pages. Format: PDF
Abstract: This study assessed the impact of environmental change and acculturation on Hmong adults and children, who have lived in the United States (US) for varying amounts of time, by investigating changes in food system access, grocery purchasing influences, eating behavior, BMI, and health status. This research has shown how the combination of quantitative (Geographical Informational Systems software and census data, food store surveys, acculturation assessment, food frequency questionnaire, theory based survey) and qualitative (focus group discussions) methodologies has the potential to provide a more complete picture of how immigrants adapt to their new food environments. As more immigrants become introduced to food secure, obesogenic environments, such as the US, it will be important to examine how this transition impacts the health of current and future generations.
Title: Examining family and community influences on the attitudes to education and career aspirations of Hmong/Mong high school students. Author: Nealcheng Xeng Thao. Source: PhD Dissertation, University of Minnesota. Location: Minneapolis. Year: 2009. Additional Source Information: N.A. Pagination: 267 pages. Format: PDF
Abstract: To date, little research has been conducted on the family and community influences on the attitudes to education and career aspirations of Hmong/Mong high school students. The Hmong / Mong refugees began their resettlement in the United States since 1975. The first wave came to the U.S. from 1975 to 1984; the second wave came here from 1985 to 1999; the third wave came from 2003 to the present time. The Hmong/Mong were a pre-literate ethnic minority people living in the highland areas in the northern part of Laos. They were recruited to fight the secret war in Laos and were admitted to resettle in the United States for their loyalty to the American government during the Vietnam War. The purpose of this qualitative ethnographic study was to examine the family and community influences on the attitudes to education and career aspirations of Hmong/Mong high school students in the Twin Cities and its surrounding areas. The research questions which drove this study were: What is like to be a Hmong/Mong student at home and in the Hmong/Mong community? What are the influences on the education of Hmong/Mong students? What are the attitudes of Hmong/Mong students toward their education? What are the educational aspirations of Hmong/Mong students? What are the career aspirations of Hmong/Mong students? The literature review included an exploration of these influential and career aspirations factors. The research design included a series of in-depth interviews with fifty-two Hmong/Mong participants ages fourteen to twenty-two years old, male and female, northern and southern Hmong/Mong, different religious affiliation, and members from eleven clans. The data were collected between the months of December 2007 to July 2008. All interviews were tape-recorded and transcribed. The interviews were in both Hmong/Mong and English. The transcripts were done by four individuals who are competent in both Hmong/Mong and English. Transcripts were analyzed for themes. Based on this analysis, results of the study were formulated. The findings of this study included the following items: (What is like to be a Hmong/Mong student at home and in the Hmong/Mong community?) (a) Constant lecture is a means of communicating expectation for Hmong/Mong students; (b) Family continues to be the main source of influence on Hmong/Mong students' education; (c) The family past and current hardship is a tool to influence Hmong/Mong students' education; (d) The Hmong/Mong community hardship and their underdog status are a tool to influence Hmong/Mong students' education; (What are the influences on the education of Hmong/Mong students?) (e) Positive connection with specific key teacher or counselor or administrator at school has positive influence on Hmong/Mong students' education; (f) Positive support network of peers influences and increases Hmong/Mong students' success in education; (g) The U.S. education system is perceived as excellent and it influences and increases Hmong/Mong students' academic success; (h) Positive self-esteem, pride, and strong character influence Hmong/Mong students' education; (i) After school programs and supportive programs increase Hmong/Mong students' success in education; (What are the attitudes on Hmong/Mong students toward their education?) (j) School is important to Hmong/Mong students; (k) Success of others influences Hmong/Mong students' education; (What are the educational aspirations of Hmong/Mong students?) (l) Hmong/Mong students have aspiration to move up their socio-economic status; (m) Hmong/Mong U.S.-born adolescents assimilate faster and become more individualistic; (n) Hmong/Mong culture is a source of resilience to Hmong/Mong adolescents; (o) Recent arrival Hmong/Mong students have high aspiration to continue school after high school; (What are their career aspirations?) (p) First generation Hmong/Mong adolescents have high aspiration in diverse career choice; and (q) Parental involvement has positive impact on Hmong/Mong adolescents' education and career choice. This study concurs with the Voluntary and Involuntary minorities' model of John Ogbu. The Hmong/Mong's experience in the U.S. education falls into the Voluntary Minorities category of John Ogbu. This study has crucial implications for policymakers, who are responsible for policies and programs that directly or indirectly affect the Hmong/Mong students' education; other groups that bear the implications of this study include postsecondary administrators, secondary administrators, families, advocates, individuals, and those for future research.
Title: Intimate partner violence among Hmong American men and women. Author: Pang Foua Yang Rhodes. Source: PhD Dissertation, University of Minnesota. Location: Minneapolis. Year: 2008. Additional Source Information: N.A. Pagination: 120 pages. Format: PDF
Abstract: This qualitative study utilized semi-structured interviews with 12 Hmong men and women regarding their experience of and explanations for intimate partner violence (IPV) in their marriages. Results from inductive thematic analysis indicated a range of IPV behaviors: (a) physical violence, (b) verbal threats, (c) legal recourse, (d) physical aggression, (e) manipulation and control and (f) sexual violence. The men were more likely to attribute IPV to situational anger and frustration, and the women, to personality. Behavior modification was the second leading explanation given by both groups. In addition, extra-marital affairs, polygyny and international marriages emerged as relational contexts salient to IPV. It is argued that both Coercive Controlling Violence and Situational Couple Violence were presented by the sample.
Title: Assessment of cleft palate articulation and resonance in familiar and unfamiliar languages: English, Spanish, and Hmong. Author: Kelly Nett Cordero. Source: PhD Dissertation, University of Minnesota. Location: Minneapolis. Year: 2008. Additional Source Information: N.A. Pagination: 126 pages. Format: PDF
Abstract: Linguistic diversity is increasing in the patients seen for cleft palate treatment and there are not enough providers who speak multiple languages. There are no published studies which directly investigate the ability to assess cleft palate articulation and resonance in a language not spoken by the examiner. The aim of this study was to determine whether listeners could make accurate judgments about articulation and resonance in languages they do not speak and to determine how experience level and familiarity with a language affect these ratings. Binary (presence/absence) and visual analog scale (VAS) judgments were obtained for hypernasality, misarticulations, speech acceptability, and overall velopharyngeal dysfunction (VPD) of English, Spanish, and Hmong samples from naïve listeners, generalist speech-language pathologists (SLPs), and specialist SLPs. The speech samples were obtained from 22 speakers, nine with a history of VPD and 13 controls. The ratings were completed by 24 native English listeners, eight at each level of experience (naïve, generalist SLP, specialist SLP). Overall, the listeners were more accurate for determining the presence/absence of misarticulations, speech acceptability, and VPD in English compared to Hmong. Hypernasality and VPD ratings in English were more accurate than in Spanish and ratings of misarticulations were more accurate in Spanish than Hmong. VAS ratings of hypernasality were highly correlated with the nasalance values from oral phoneme reading passages. Statistically significant correlations were present for overall and group ratings in English. Less consistent correlations were observed in Spanish and no significant correlations were present in Hmong. Overall, listeners judged English ratings to be easier to make, and were made with more confidence, compared to Hmong. Overall, the SLP specialists tended to find the ratings in all languages easier to make and were more confident than naïve listeners. Many of the expected differences for ratings based on listener experience and language familiarity were observed. There were advantages for all listener groups in English when compared to Hmong. These differences were inconsistent and weaker when Spanish was compared to English. The experience advantage for listeners was most apparent in English and Hmong.
Title: A phenomenological study of the coming out experiences of gay and lesbian Hmong. Author: Pahoua K. Yang. Source: PhD Dissertation, University of Minnesota. Location: Minneapolis. Year: 2008. Additional Source Information: N.A. Pagination: 126 pages. Format: PDF
Abstract: The issue of sexual orientation remains a taboo one in the Hmong community, but one that must be addressed, particularly as more Hmong Americans continue to negotiate multiple identities, including sexual orientation. This study explored some of the internal and external processes involved with the coming out experiences of gay and lesbian Hmong. The aims of this study were to provide space for Hmong lesbians and gay men to tell their stories, to provide gay and lesbian Hmong examples of coming out, and to provide clinicians with an understanding of the unique and common issues with which Hmong lesbians and gay men must contend. Eleven participants, five men and six women, were interviewed using a structured interview guide. Ten of the interviews were transcribed and analyzed using a modified CQR method. Nine domains and 34 themes emerged. The domains that emerged were: meaning-making, language, coming out, family, gender role expectations, the role of religion, intra/inter cultural experiences, life-changing lessons, and hopes. Implications and recommendations based on the findings are also made.
Title: Minimizing Methylmercury Exposure in the Hmong Community from Sport-Caught Fish Consumption in Minnesota. Author: Daniel Endreson. Source: Plan B Project Paper, Humphrey Institute of Public Affairs, University of Minnesota. Location: Minneapolis. Year: 2008. Additional Source Information: N.A. Pagination: 50 pages. Format: PDF
Abstract: Due to increasing levels of mercury emissions throughout the world, there is an increased threat to the human population from methylmercury, a biomethylated derivative of mercury. Methylmercury is a dangerous neurotoxin that can have adverse effects on the central nervous system and behavioral centers of the brain. Humans can become exposed to methylmercury through consumption of contaminated fish from polluted waters. Many states, including Minnesota, use fish consumption advisories to warn the public of methylmercury exposure, but these advisories may not always reach at-risk segments of the population. The Hmong community in the Twin Cities consumes a high quantity of sport-caught fish for a variety of reasons, including a desire to maintain cultural identity, recreation, or economic necessity, even though fish consumption advisories warn against such actions. Four alternatives were considered to provide better protection to the Hmong community from methylmercury exposure – (1) continue the use of fish consumption advisories as developed by the Minnesota Department of Health (MDH), (2) alter the current program by reallocating advisory education efforts from state agencies to local governmental units and organizations, (3) impose a ban on the consumption of all fish from methylmercury-impaired waters in the Minneapolis/St. Paul metropolitan area, and (4) establish more Asian-specific food shelves in the Twin Cities area to provide food alternatives to sport-caught fish. Each of these alternatives were evaluated using six criteria – safety effectiveness, program awareness, social and cultural acceptability, administrative operability, program cost, and health benefit. This report concludes that efforts taken by the MDH in educating Hmong anglers have the promise of being effective in reducing methylmercury exposure from fish consumption. However, based on theories of risk perception and communication, more needs to be done at both the state and local level to effectively target this specific subpopulation in Minnesota.
Hmong-Related Theses online from University of Wisconsin-Stout
Title: Impostor Phenomenon Among Hmong College Students. Author: GaoNhia Moua. Source: M.S. Thesis, University of Wisconsin-Stout. Location: Menominee, WI. Year: 2014. Additional Source Information: N.A. Pagination: 72 pages. Format: PDF
Abstract: Impostor Phenomenon (IP) refers to feelings of phoniness experienced by high achievers (Clance & Imes, 1978). Many studies have been conducted and have found that college students can experience IP, preventing them from internalizing their own success, leading to feelings of self-doubt and anxiety, and affecting their academic performance and their decision to quit their educational pursuits. Provided is a detailed review on IP and Hmong students' college experience. However, there is no exclusive study done on IP among Hmong students. A thorough review of peer reviewed articles on IP and Hmong students' college experience resulted in 39 studies, ranging from 1978 to 2014. The review outlines the impact of Hmong culture on college experience for Hmong students, impostors' relationships with their parents, constructs associated with impostors, mental health and treatment of impostors, personalities of impostors, and specific impostor populations and groups. Without specific research done on the effects of IP on Hmong college students, it is difficult to discern the actual effects. This may be an essential topic for future research to investigate, possibly to increase retention and graduation rates overall. This research may also lead to more beneficial treatment for IP as well.
Title: A Culturally Reflexive Comparison of Somatic Experiencing and Hmong Shamanism in the Treatment of Trauma and Soul Loss. Author: Rachel M. Martin. Source: M.S. Thesis, University of Wisconsin-Stout. Location: Menominee, WI. Year: 2014. Additional Source Information: N.A. Pagination: 34 pages. Format: PDF
Abstract: Trauma is mentioned throughout the literature on the mental health status of Hmong Americans. Less frequently, soul loss is mentioned, though nowhere are similarities and differences between these seemingly related concepts explored. Here these concepts are compared and contrasted in order to better understand how paying attention to one's own culture (cultural reflexivity) can foster more culturally responsive psychotherapy and more innovative cross-cultural research. The concept of trauma is examined primarily through the lens of a body-oriented trauma healing modality called Somatic Experiencing (SE®) because its conceptualization and treatment of trauma appear similar in certain ways to how Hmong shamans conceptualize and treat soul loss. Together these concepts and healing modalities are explored using a bricolage qualitative research methodology. The critical and multi-perspectival nature of bricolage research helps make visible assumptions within Western cultural research and clinical practice paradigms which might be difficult to see using other research methodologies. The importance of paying attention to the culturally constructed view of self (as predominantly independent or interdependent) emerges as a key finding of this research.
Title: Intersections of Identities: A Hmong Voice from the Field. Author: Mai Bao Xiong. Source: M.S. Thesis, University of Wisconsin-Stout. Location: Menominee, WI. Year: 2014. Additional Source Information: N.A. Pagination: 45 pages. Format: PDF
Abstract: This paper explores the intersections of mymultiple identities as Hmong, as American, and as a psychotherapist, through the use of autoethnography. I provide first-person narratives of my own lived experiences navigating identity intersections within the context of mental health. Themes form mypersonal accounts are discussed and connected to potential future research to include the voices of other Hmong therapists. I conclude by inviting readers to join a calling in of my souls to initiate self-healing.
Title: Factors Influencing Hmong Women’s Decision to Breastfeed in La Crosse County, WI Author: Michelle M. Murphy. Source: M.S. Thesis, University of Wisconsin-Stout. Location: Menominee, WI. Year: 2014. Additional Source Information: N.A. Pagination: 55 pages. Format: PDF
Abstract: The objective of this study was to identify behavioral intentions specific to the Hmong population using the Theory of Planned Behavior. A convenience sample of 25 Hmong mothers in western Wisconsin participated in the study as part of a brunch for Hmong women held at the La Crosse Public Health Building. Participants completed a questionnaire that measured theoretical constructs (behavioral beliefs, control beliefs, and normative beliefs) that measured their intentions to exclusively breastfeed their infants for six months. Forty percent of mothers reported infant health as an advantage to exclusive breastfeeding and 40% of mothers reported difficulty balancing work as a disadvantage to breastfeeding. Forty percent of mothers identified convenience as a facilitator of exclusive breastfeeding and 80% of mothers reported returning to work as a barrier. Forty percent of women felt no disapproval to performing exclusive breastfeeding, and 40% of mothers felt disapproval from an employer, themselves, or family. Interventions and polices to increase breastfeeding among Hmong mothers in western Wisconsin should focus on facilitating links within the Hmong community that support traditional breastfeeding practices, educating Hmong women to take advantage of their workplace breastfeeding rights, and encouraging an emphasis on cultural competency in healthcare settings.
Title: Parental Influence on Hmong Students decision towards higher education. Author: Ong Lo. Source: M.S. Thesis, University of Wisconsin-Stout. Location: Menominee, WI. Year: 2013. Additional Source Information: N.A. Pagination: 48 pages. Format: PDF
Abstract: This study is to examine the influence of parents on Hmong students and if Hmong gender roles, cultural barriers, assimilation and acculturation to the American culture in the United States can affect Hmong students’ decisions to pursue higher education. Hmong males are expected to do well to preserve and carry on the family reputation and name. Hmong males are encouraged to go out and seek knowledge, in hopes of not only leading the family but the clan (pertaining to 18 Hmong last names) and the Hmong community as well. Hmong females are expected to learn traditional family roles. Older generations hold a high expectation of their daughters to keep the traditional Hmong ways of caring for their immediate family until they are married.Encouragement for males to obtain a higher education may seem more likely to happen. School Counselors are expected to learn of multicultural counseling to effectively reach out to all students. It’s important for school counselor’s to know of and learn about the Hmong culture to effectively help Hmong students and give them resources necessary to obtain a higher education.
Title: Socialization and Hmong Student Success in Career and Technical Education. Author: Carmen Iannarelli. Source: M.S. Thesis, University of Wisconsin-Stout. Location: Menominee, WI. Year: 2013. Additional Source Information: N.A. Pagination: 73 pages. Format: PDF
Abstract: This study examines factors affecting the academic performance of Hmong students at Chippewa Valley Technical College. Factors specifically analyzed for their impact upon student success are socioeconomic status, family support, the use of academic support programs, and the influence of agents of socialization. Through the use of archival institutional data, Hmong students were compared to white students at CVTC in terms of their relative grade point averages, course completion rates, and retention rates. Data revealedsignificant disparitiesin grade point average performance between Hmong and white students. The data also showed that eligibility for financial aid was significantly higher among Hmong students, and that this difference was commensurate with educational performance gaps between the two groups. Additionally, online surveys were used to assess family support while attending CVTC, the role of academic support programs, and influential agents of socialization. Gender differences in grade point average performance and socialization also were analyzed. Implications of the study’s findings are discussed and recommendations for improving the performance of Hmong students are provided.
Title: Improving the literacy skills of low-income bilingual preschoolers. Author: Linda E. Benzschawel. Source: M.S. Thesis, University of Wisconsin-Stout. Location: Menominee, WI. Year: 2012. Additional Source Information: N.A. Pagination: 31 pages. Format: PDF
Abstract: The gap between the literacy scores of preschool children in poverty and their middle and upper class peers upon entry into kindergarten continues to grow. This proposal seeks $712.00 to increase the emergent literacy skills of a group of low-income preschool children through providing a combination of quality children’s literature in their native language for home and school use, and training for their parents on strategies to support their children’s emergent literacy skills. Research by Lee and Burkam (2002) found that the cognitive scores of preschool aged children in poverty are more than 60% lower than their peers in higher socioeconomic groups (p.19). Improving the emergent literacy skills of low-income preschoolers is central to closing this gap. Preschool Dual Language Learners (DLLs) in poverty are at an even bigger disadvantage with very few pieces of quality children’s literature in their native language available at school and in their homes. This proposal focuses on the multilingual Bayside Head Start program, which serves 18 low-income preschoolers and their families. This group includes native English, Spanish and Hmong speaking children and families. The following objectives are proposed to meet this need: 1.Increase the number of books in each child’s native language in the classroom. 2.Increase the children and family’s access to books in the child’s native language in the home. 3.Increase the parent’s ability to support and nurture their child’s developing emergent literacy skills. 4.Increase the children’s emergent literacy skills.
Title: Parenting styles of Hmong parents and its effects and contributions to Hmong student's academic achievement. Author: Sandy Moua. Source: M.S. Thesis, University of Wisconsin-Stout. Location: Menominee, WI. Year: 2010. Additional Source Information: N.A. Pagination: 42 pages. Format: PDF
Abstract: In 1975, the Refugee Assistance Act of 1975 granted access to the first wave of Hmong refugees into the United States. The 2000 United States Census counted 170,049 people who identified themselves as Hmong. While the struggles of the Hmong people are very different in Laos and Thailand; the United States refugees and immigrants continue to face a different array of difficulties and hardships. In spite of their difficulties acculturating into the culture and adapting to the United States, Hmong-American parents soon identify and stress the value of an education to their children. This research reviewed parenting styles of Hmong-American parents and how the parenting styles contributed to Hmong-American children's academic achievement and success. Parenting styles have been correlated with children's academic achievement and success. Limited research has identified that Hmong-American parents are viewed as more authoritarian in regard to their children's education than European-American parents. Even though Hmong-American parents are viewed as more authoritarian, their children still do very well in school when compared to Caucasian students whose parents are typically identified as authoritative; the parenting style research suggest correlates to better academic achievement in children. This research also identified that Diana Baumrind's parenting styles may not necessarily reflect those of other ethnic cultures.
Title: Perceived Hmong Cultural Barriers in School Counseling. Author: Shoua Chang. Source: M.S. Thesis, University of Wisconsin-Stout. Location: Menominee, WI. Year: 2010. Additional Source Information: N.A. Pagination: 36 pages. Format: PDF
Abstract: Even with the vast research in multicultural counseling, little is known about the 2 perspective of the Hmong students. Students with more than one ethnic culture may face barriers throughout their life that challenge their decision-making. Depending on how acculturated Hmong immigrants, first generations, second generations, and future generations may be, they will each have their own insight on how to handle a situation. The objective of this literature review is to highlight some perceptions that Hmong students may encounter in the school counseling setting. The other outcome of this study is to share ideas for school counselors who are working with Hmong students. Both the school counselor and Hmong students face multiple baniers when working together. Counselors need to be aware of their own cultural biases, cultural differences, and acculturating generations, when considering strategies to support Hmong students and their families. Some risks of being unfamiliar with other cultures may include misunderstanding of 3 students, miscommunication, or cultural discrimination. The Hmong have encountered many challenges as they move from country to country as families adjust to a new life style. In the United States, the Hmong have an opportunity to seek advice from outside of their norm. With the increase in diverse populations, counselors must prepare themselves to work with future bicultural or multicultural generations. It is not expected that all school counselors are experts in serving every different multicultural population, but it is hoped that awareness of other cultures will increase their competence and reduce any biases. The recommendations given in this research may help educators improve and understand the perception of the Hmong culture.
Title: American Hmong Youth and College Readiness: Integrating Culture and Educational Success. Author: Mary Huffcutt. Source: M.S. Thesis, University of Wisconsin-Stout. Location: Menominee, WI. Year: 2010. Additional Source Information: N.A. Pagination: 43 pages. Format: PDF
Abstract: The Hmong people have a rich and turbulent history in which their strength and 2 deten11ination can be shown. Their culture embraces the family. Each member has a significant role to play and with these roles come purpose, not only to sustain but also to thrive. Through their persistence and strength in family, the Hmong refugees are writing a remarkable story. A story they hope will show success. The Hmong people place value on education. They see it as a way to gain success and respect in America. However, there is a gap between who is going to college and who is not. Hmong students are less likely to go to college than white students. And the gap widens when adding the socio-economic status. Low-income, minority students are far less likely to enter college than white middle-to high-income students.
Title: Hmong Traditional Roles and the Pursuit of Higher Education for Married Hmong American Women. Author: Mai Shoua Khang. Source: M.S. Thesis, University of Wisconsin-Stout. Location: Menominee, WI. Year: 2010. Additional Source Information: N.A. Pagination: 60 pages. Format: PDF Abstract: The patriarchal traditional Hmong culture has defined expectations for both Hmong men and women. In Laos, education and employment opportunities were restricted to sons who were more valued than daughters. Since the immigration of the Hmong to the United States, education and employment have become accessible to Hmong women. However, traditional Hmong gender roles and values continue to be strong practices impacting Hmong women negatively in regard to their educational pursuits. Young married Hmong women who are expected to fulfill their obligations as new wives and daughters-in-law often delay or discontinue their educational plans. This researcher found reoccurring themes in literatures regarding the relationship between Hmong women's traditional gender roles and their abilities to obtain higher education. This researcher also interviewed nine married Hmong women informants who were pursuing their education. Reoccurring themes expressed by the informants were compared to the existing literature on Hmong women's gender roles and challenges. These themes focused on marital challenges, educational impacts, Hmong women in higher education, and changes needed to support and advocate for Hmong women. This researcher concluded that the importance of maintaining Hmong traditional gender roles overshadowed the importance of obtaining an education for Hmong American women.
Title: Assessment of Risk Factors for Developing Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus in Hmong Americans from Dunn
County, Wisconsin. Author: Tanya Christopherson. Source: M.S. Thesis, University of Wisconsin-Stout. Location: Menominee, WI. Year: 2009. Additional Source Information: N.A. Pagination: 110 pages. Format: PDF
Abstract: The purpose of this study was to identify if the Hmong of Dunn County, Wisconsin have risk factors for developing type 2 diabetes mellitus. Thirty-one subjects (17 males aod 14 females) from 18-60 years old participated in the study. Data was collected at the Dunn County Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, lnfaots, and Children, and Hmong Stout Student Organization of University of Wisconsin-Stout. Subjects completed a survey which assessed risk factors for type 2 diabetes mellitus such as: age, weight status, smoking habits, eating habits, magnesium and fiber intake, physical activity, and past medical history. Height and weight of subjects were measured by the researcher, and body mass index (BMI) was calculated from these measurements. A qualititative food frequency questionnaire was administered to determine magnesium and fiber intakes as well as consumption from several food groups. Data was analyzed using descriptive statistics such as the mean, Pearson correlation, and paired t test. Results indicated 54.8% of subjects had inadequate fiber intakes (less than 66% of the Adequate Intake). The major sources of fiber included: fries, bananas, oats, chocolate milk, pork/harn, coconut cream, and candy bars. The majority of subjects had no risk associated with age, overweight, physical activity, magnesium intake or smoking habits. Past medical history of diabetes, high blood pressure, and high cholesterol were insignificant. No significant correlations existed between any of the risk factors studied. In conclusion, the only risk factor associated with type 2 diabetes found in this study was inadequate fiber intake. Hrnong subjects of this study may need to increase their fiber intake to at least 16.5 g of fiber per day(66% of the Adequate Intake). The primary source of fiber consumed may suggest a small degree of acculturation.
Title: The beauty perceptions of Hmong American college women. Author: Kia Lee. Source: M.S. Thesis, University of Wisconsin-Stout. Location: Menominee, WI. Year: 2009. Additional Source Information: N.A. Pagination: 77 pages. Format: PDF
Abstract: There is considerable research regarding body image and beauty perceptions among minority women such as African Americans, Hispanics, and Asian Americans. However, little research has been done on beauty perceptions among women of the Hmong population. The objective of this research was to determine what Hmong-American college women perceive as physical ii beauty and to identify the most important factors that may influence their perceptions. In order to further an understanding of those factors, a definition of what these females perceive as physical beauty needed to be established and defining this perception was the focus of this study. online survey was used to measure the participants' perceptions of physical beauty ideals. This survey was sent to three universities in western Wisconsin; a total of 51 surveys were completed. The survey focused primarily on the participants' own perceptions. Results suggested that Hmong American college women's perceptions of physical beauty are similar to those found in the body of research describing the general Asian American female population. While they chose ideal body shapes that were mid-size and were associated with being healthy Western media still appeared to be the most influential factor impacting Hmong American women's perceptions of beauty. Respondents identified Western media, Western celebrities, Asian media, Asian celebrities, and Western culture as being their most important influencing factors while friends and family were less ofan.influence. However, the extent to which Western media affects Hmong women's perception of beauty is still inconclusive and warrants further investigation.
Title: The Vietnam War: Two Hmong Soldiers’ Personal Experience in the Secret War. Author: Gjinn Lor. Source: M.S. Thesis, University of Wisconsin-Stout. Location: Menominee, WI. Year: 2008. Additional Source Information: N.A. Pagination: 68 pages. Format: PDF
Abstract: The main purpose of this historical research is to reveal the true stories of the Vietnam War from two Hmong individuals who participated in the Vietnam War. Their stories will pass down to their children and future generations when they are no longer living. This research will describe the two individuals' personal experiences in the Vietnam War and how they managed to escape to safety. The two Hmong soldiers were selected with age in mind, one having served as a teenager, the other as an adult. By having two different ages, there will be two different perspectives about the Vietnam War. The instrument used in this study was developed and designed by the researcher and was an interview questionnaire. The interview questions were written in two languages, Hmong and English, back to back. The questions were used as a guideline. What the individuals chose to tell the researcher may have gone outside the boundaries of the survey questions. The results of the study are based on the comparison of the two individual soldiers' lives, who were involved in the same war and hearing their perceptions of the war. This study shows that Hmong soldiers, involved in the Vietnam War, joined hands with the Americans proudly, but have some reservations and regrets in terms of the price paid by the Hmong people for being allies with the U.S. Further research is needed to document more Hmong soldiers' experiences in the Vietnam War. In future research studies should include how the war experience of Hmong soldiers impacts their lives in the U.S. and those of immediate family members. What counseling implications might this have for the individual and the family? This could provide more understanding of what Hmong people have gone through during and after the Vietnam War and what services might be helpful to those who may want to get help from professionals.
Title: Wisconsin Hmong Experiences with Hemodialysis. Author: Linda Krueger. Source: M.S. Thesis, University of Wisconsin-Stout. Location: Menominee, WI. Year: 2007. Additional Source Information: N.A. Pagination: 157 pages. Format: PDF.
Abstract: The purpose of this study was to explore the experiences of Hmong hemodialysis patients and the nurses working with them. Two Midwestern Wisconsin hospitals with hemodialysis units were used as data collection sites. All Registered Nurses working in the dialysis unit with Hmong hemodialysis patients were invited to participate. All Hmong hemodialysis patients were invited to participate. Cooperation and assistance was obtained by the Hmong community. Questionnaires were distributed to the nurses and interviews were conducted with the Hmong hemodialysis patients. There were 17 nurses and four Hmong hemodialysis patients that participated in this study. The results indicated nurses use a variety of methods to learn about Hmong culture on their own, but overall they felt there was a lack of training for them on Hmong culture. They felt the Hmong hemodialysis patients were less compliant with their medication regimen and dietary fluid restriction but equally compliant with their hemodialysis treatment schedule compared to their non-Hrnong hemodialysis patients. These nurses identified several patient barriers were present: transportation, finances, family support, depression, and anxiety. Cultural challenges that were identified in working with Hmong hemodialysis patients included: communication, Hmong beliefs about treatment, beliefs about illness, and fears about treatment. The Hmong hemodialysis patients described experiencing profound sadness, weakness and uncertainty. They were sad that they had this chronic disease, that so much oftheir time was spent in dialysis, and that their lives were drastically changed. They described feeling fatigued and unable to participate in family, social, and clan activities. This also contributed to their sadness. Feelings ofuncertainty and fear related to life, death, dialysis, the future, and kidney transplant were identified. Recommendations to nurses, educators, administrators, and researchers were provided based on the results ofthis study. Future research is needed to explore this topic more completely.
Title: Hmong parents’ attitudes, perceptions of disability, and expectations of children with disabilities a
qualitative study of its impact on academic performance. Author: Mao Xiong. Source: M.S. Thesis, University of Wisconsin-Stout. Location: Menominee, WI. Year: 2007. Additional Source Information: N.A. Pagination: 84 pages. Format: PDF
Abstract: Hmong, an ethnic group from Southeast Asia, are immigrants in the United States since 1975. As they adjust to western culture, parents have to set different expectations for their children. One major difference for Among in the U.S. is the opportunity to receive a free public education. Among parents strongly encourage higher education and expect children to do well, but for their children with disabilities, pursuing education after high school may not be a choice, The purpose of this qualitative study is to investigate what is expected of children with disabilities living in the United States and what he or she can achieve academically, based on the child and parent's goals and perspective and attitude of disabilities. Three Hmong children with disabilities and their parents from Eau Claire, WI were interviewed, The ages of the children were 18 and 19. Results found that Hmong parents tend to have a positive attitude toward individuals with disabilities and have hopes for their children with disabilities but have lower expectations for their children with disabilities than their children with no disabilities. All the Hmong parents want their children with disabilities to perform well . in school and half of them want their children to continue their education after high school. The other half believed it would be better for their children with disabilities to work after high school. Suggestions from children with disabilities and their parents to improve their education were also made.
Title: Perceptions and knowledge of Hmong high school students regarding mental health. Author: Zachary S. Secrist. Source: M.S. Thesis, University of Wisconsin-Stout. Location: Menominee, WI. Year: 2006. Additional Source Information: N.A. Pagination: 42 pages. Format: PDF
Abstract: The Hmong people have a unique history of trials and tribulations juxtaposed with their ability to thrive as a small ethnic group in countries dominated by different ethnic majorities. From China to the United States, the Hmong have faced challenges to maintain their cultural identity. Now in the U.S., Hmong people face the challenges of adaptation and accommodation of trying to blend two cultures. This challenge is not just in the home and community, but also within schools. Hmong students face a myriad of issues surrounding school, home, social, and cultural expectation that can lead to academic difficulty, stress, and other mental health issues. Besides family, the educational setting plays one of the most important roles, not just in educating students, but also in helping to develop a sense of self and "place" in this world. Attempting to bridge the gap of living in two cultures, social pressures from parents and school, and wanting to be Americanized can leave a Hmong student feeling isolated and struggling to form an identity in American society. Hmong students need to have school professionals they can turn to for help and who can be advocates to help others learn about Hmong student struggles. School psychologists, counselors, social workers, and other school service staff should be keenly aware of their student population needs. It is important that mental health professionals and other school service staff be competent in the area of Hmong culture and Hmong student needs in order to provide them quality services. This literature review highlights key areas that need to be addressed in order for Hmong students to benefit from a full educational experience and suggests potential areas of future research. One possible area of inquiry could be to survey Hmong high school students to gain their perceptions regarding mental health and ethnic identity. Using a survey would be a way to begin the process of gaining a better understanding of Hmong student mental health awareness and needs. Such knowledge could have important implications for school mental health as well as other school service staff.
Title: Perceptions and knowledge that 7th and 8th grade Hmong students have of school guidance programs. Author: Ryan Sherman. Source: M.S. Thesis, University of Wisconsin-Stout. Location: Menominee, WI. Year: 2004. Additional Source Information: N.A. Pagination: 46 pages. Format: PDF
Abstract: The purpose of this study was to see how 7th and 8th grade Hmong students perceive their school’s guidance department. Data was collected through the use of a survey that was administered to 35 stratified randomly selected 7th and 8th grade Hmong middle school students during the 2003-2004 school year in the Eau Claire Area School District. Everyday Hmong students are faced with having to live in two separate types of environments at school and in the Hmong culture. The expectations for both are different and theses students have to be able to function and be successful in both environments. The major differences between the cultures are language, social expectations, and family heritage. Many Hmong students are confused and need guidance to make it through these difficult yours of growth. The school’s guidance department is one area in the school that should be prepared to help with these issues. This study looked at the differences in culture and expectations for Hmong students at school and home and looked at how the students used the guidance department’s services to help them deal with their issues. The findings from this study revealed the needs of Hmong students, how they use the guidance department in their schools, and how teachers, administrators, and the community can more effectively meet their needs as they grow into adulthood. Results of the study will be used to help others understand what kind of struggles these students encounter and what can be done to help them.
Title: Factors leading Hmong youths to join gangs. Author: Kevin C. Lor. Source: M.S. Thesis, University of Wisconsin-Stout. Location: Menominee, WI. Year: 2003. Additional Source Information: N.A. Pagination: 55 pages. Format: PDF
Abstract: This paper examines some of the elements that lead youth to join gangs. A questionnaire developed by the investigator was distributed to gang members and at-risk Hmong youth in two northern states. This questionnaire was developed in an attempt to assess some of the factors that have a high probability of leading youth to join gangs to compensate for what is lacking in Hmong youths' life. A 12-item questionnaire was developed and distributed to at-risk Hmong youths residing in two northern states. The questions were examined by calculating the percentage of males and females responding to different targeted areas. The questions were also examined to determine the internal validity between male and female subjects in responding to the different targeted areas.
Title: The Hmong culture kinship, marriage & family systems. Author: Teng Moua. Source: M.S. Thesis, University of Wisconsin-Stout. Location: Menominee, WI. Year: 2003. Additional Source Information: N.A. Pagination: 61 pages. Format: PDF
Abstract: The purpose of this study is to describe the traditional Hmong kinship, marriage and family systems in the format of narrative from the writer’s experiences, a thorough review of the existing literature written about the Hmong culture in these three (3) categories, and two structural interviews of two Hmong families in the United States. This study only gives a general overview of the traditional Hmong kinship, marriage and family systems as they exist for the Hmong people in the United States currently. Therefore, it will not cover all the details and variations regarding the traditional Hmong kinship, marriage and family which still guide Hmong people around the world. Also, it will not cover the whole life course transitions such as childhood, adolescence, adulthood, late adulthood or the aging process or life core issues. This study is divided into two major parts: a review of literature and two interviews of the two selected Hmong families (one traditional & one contemporary) in the Minneapolis-St. Paul metropolitan area. The two interviews of these two families from two different generations are to gain new perspectives of both what has changed, and what has remained the same in their beliefs and practices of the traditional Hmong kinship, marriage and family systems after living in the United States for more than eighteen (18) years. As the Hmong-American families, in general, continue to acculturate more and more into the American mainstream society and culture, the information collected from the two interviews will be used to suggest the trends of change in the beliefs and practices of the traditional Hmong kinship, marriage and family structures in the near future.
Title: A qualitative study examining the effects of polygyny on Hmong individuals who had been raised in polygynous households. Author: Manee Yang. Source: M.S. Thesis, University of Wisconsin-Stout. Location: Menominee, WI. Year: 2003. Additional Source Information: N.A. Pagination: 71 pages. Format: PDF
Abstract: In the late1970’s, Americans witnessed a large influx of immigrating groups of refugees, one of which was the Hmong. They brought foundational values of respecting hard work, elder leadership, patrilineal families, kinship, reciprocity, and the clan structure. These strong beliefs, taken into account with situational factors, contributed to some Hmong partaking in the long-sustained custom of cultural polygyny as a means for survival. Once seen as a necessity in Laos by some Hmong, it is unsure how many still believe in sustaining the custom in America. Polygamy has always remained a sensitive and controversial topic for the Hmong community. For these reasons, there has been very little research done on polygamy within the Hmong culture. The purpose of this research was to qualitatively examine whether polygamy has an effect on Hmong individuals and what these effects may be as reported by the participants.The researcher constructed a survey in Hmong and English, which servedas a framework for obtaining narratives from participants concerning their relationships with their fathers, mothers, fathers’ other wife, fathers’ other children, their viewpoints on polygyny, and advantages and disadvantages of being raised in a polygynous household. There were five participants in this study; all from the same Midwestern community, both female and male and ranging in age from late teens to over sixty-five years. Each interview was audiotaped and took approximately thirty minutes to complete, then, interviews were transcribed.
Title: Across the ocean the impact of immigration on Hmong women. Author: Kaying Lo. Source: M.S. Thesis, University of Wisconsin-Stout. Location: Menominee, WI. Year: 2002. Additional Source Information: N.A. Pagination: 48 pages. Format: PDF
Abstract: Hmong women originally from Laos and Thailand are in constant transition due to their journey to America. They have been strong, often quiet, contributors to their families and people, and their strength continues despite the adversities of war and immigration. This researcher used a qualitative approach in seeking to understand the transitions ofHmong women’s lives in the United States. This phenomenological study was based on interviews with four Hmong women who spoke about the life changes they have faced due to immigration. Interviews were mainly derived from a snowball sample where the participants were friends or relatives of the researcher. Participants who were not immediately connected to the researcher were selected by recommendation of existing participants. The research question was: how has immigration into the United States changed Hmong Women’s lives within their families and culture?
Title: Combating racism, bigotry, and prejudice preliminary research for development of an oral history CD on the cultural heritage of Hmong Americans Plan B paper. Author: Kennedee Her. Source: M.S. Thesis, University of Wisconsin-Stout. Location: Menominee, WI. Year: 2002. Additional Source Information: N.A. Pagination: 65 pages. Format: PDF
Abstract: Research indicates that in the last half century, the population of minority immigrants has been growing rapidly in the United States. Despite its growth, research indicates that racial andethnic discrimination is common in the United States (Duany, 1998). The objective of this preliminary study is to determine the factors of prejudice and discrimination against new immigrants in general and specifically to look at the prejudice anddiscrimination against the Hmong Americans. The focal point of this study is to gather data and recommendations from the focus group informants. The data then will be used to develop a multi-media (CD-ROM based) oral history on the cultural heritage of Hmong Americans, which will serve as an educational tool for individuals and the general public to be able to access to the Hmong culture, history, language, and arts. A Focus Group Interview Guide was used to guide and engage conversations with each individual’s interviews and the focus group interviews. The primary topics that will be explored and discussed during each interview session include Hmong culture and history. As the results, the factors of prejudice and discrimination against the Hmong Americans were due to the lack of cultural awareness, misinterpretation, language barrier, misjudgment, fault of assumptions, and/or rumors. The Hmong have faced the followingtypes of prejudice and discrimination: verbal harassment, poor services in organizational settings, physical harassment, avoidance in institutional settings, and police mistreatment. When the CD project is completed, it would serve as an educational key to combat racism, bigotry, and prejudice and discrimination. The result of this study highly corresponded to the hypothesis of the development of a CD that based on the cultural heritage of the Hmong Americans. The following topics were cited by the focus group informants as very important to put into the content of the CD, which include the Hmong culture, history, language, and arts.
Title: Hmong family processes and their impact on Hmong adolescents' delinquent behaviors a correlational study. Author: Shanie Xiong. Source: M.S. Thesis, University of Wisconsin-Stout. Location: Menominee, WI. Year: 2002. Additional Source Information: N.A. Pagination: 82 pages. Format: PDF
Abstract: The purpose of this study is to provide an understanding of Hmong family processes and to examine the importance of individual parenting variables that impact Hmong adolescents’ delinquent behaviors. The family variables to be study are, parental attachment, parental monitoring, and parental discipline practices. In addition, levels of acculturation were measured since previous study has shown that the correlates of delinquent behaviors among members of differing cultural and ethnic groups may be related to unique factors. There were 52 Hmong adolescents from Menomonie, Eau Claire, Wisconsin and Saint Paul, Minneapolis, Minnesota who participated in the study. The research study survey instrument consisted of three parts: demographic information, four levels of acculturation, and forty items measuring family processes variables and delinquent behaviors. Results were analyzed by the SPSS-10.0 statistical package. Pearson Correlation indicated that there is a high negative correlation between parental attachment and delinquent behaviors (r = -.760**) and parental monitoring and delinquent behaviors (r = -.808**). A positive correlation exists for parental discipline practices and 3delinquent behaviors (r = .601**). There is a correlation between levels of acculturation and delinquent behaviors (mean = 2.93). Other data shows that participants’ father’s level of education and mother’s level of education was found to be related to levels of delinquent behaviors. Additionally, the length of time live in the United States was significant to level of delinquent behaviors among Hmong adolescents. Further research is necessary to provide more effective programs and services to Hmong adolescents and their parents to ensure that they will grow up to become competent and responsible citizens. Recommendations were made for this research to assist Hmong adolescents and their parents.
Title: Hmong students at UW-Stout factors influencing attendance and retention in a post secondary institution. Author: Melissa Crevier. Source: M.S. Thesis, University of Wisconsin-Stout. Location: Menominee, WI. Year: 2002. Additional Source Information: N.A. Pagination: 82 pages. Format: PDF
Abstract: The Hmong are among a plethora of immigrating people who have left a land of solitary oppression to come to the United States for freedomand further opportunity. Although steeped in tradition, they left a land that persecuted them after the Vietnam War. It has been a difficult struggle for this people to settle into a culture so different and demanding in comparison to the traditions of their homeland. Now in America, they must adjust to a culture with a fluctuating economy and a society which values individual attainment. As do many immigrants that settle in the United States, the Hmong in general, value education, and understand that this is the key to their survival and success in the United States. The purpose of this study was to look at Hmong college students, currently enrolled at the University of Wisconsin-Stout in Menomonie, Wisconsin, to help determine factors that aided them in attending this post-secondary institution. Through the choice of an e-mailed or postal mail out survey, it specifically examined their experiences, secondary trends, programs which encouraged them to continue with college, support of family members and clans, effects of Wisconsin Works, a welfare reform program which began in 1997 and other factors that may have helped students choose UW-Stout as their college of choice. Furthermore, it will examine supportive factors that have aided Hmong students in succeeding and completing a post-secondary degree at UW-Stout.
Title: Hmong students' personal adjustment in American culture. Author: Li Shi. Source: M.S. Thesis, University of Wisconsin-Stout. Location: Menominee, WI. Year: 2001. Additional Source Information: N.A. Pagination: 50 pages. Format: PDF
Abstract: The purpose of this study was to gather information relative to Hmong culture and Hmong youth's personal adjustment in the American school system. A twenty-five-item interview was conducted with eight Hmong students in grades 7-12 in a public school district in Minnesota. The findings of the study showed that the educators' teaching techniques, positive attitude about the students and knowledge of the students' culture influenced the students' adjustment at school. Social support, students' sociality, and age at time of arrival in the U.S also influenced the students' adjustment. English proficiency and high self-esteem were also associated with the participating Hmong students' performance at school. The participating students' length of residency in the U.S. was not related to their adjustment. No gender differences were found. Further research with a larger sample size is recommended.
Title: The Hmong a human resource transition. Author: Suzanne C. Dirks. Source: M.S. Thesis, University of Wisconsin-Stout. Location: Menominee, WI. Year: 2000. Additional Source Information: N.A. Pagination: 41 pages. Format: PDF
Abstract: The Hmong are an ancient people, but their Diaspora has proven them to be an adaptable people. Change does take time and for the Hmong high school graduates change has placed them between two worlds. One is of the ancient third world country of their ancestors and traditions. The other is a world based on a fluctuating economy, where access to success is gained through literacy and education. Their generation is a pivotal one that can aid this ancient people with acculturation into the United States community. The purpose of this research is to study the 1992, 1994 and 1996 Hmong graduates of Wausau East and West high schools. The study will look for relationships among the graduates to find any post-secondary trends, employment plans, encouragement of family and clans in their educational plans, and the citizenship status of the students and parents.Assimilation can cause a loss ancestral traditions so the study will also look at the graduate's knowledge and retention of their native language.
Title: Hmong parent education and involvement and its impact on children a correlational study. Author: Christopher A. Bondioli. Source: M.S. Thesis, University of Wisconsin-Stout. Location: Menominee, WI. Year: 2000. Additional Source Information: N.A. Pagination: 33 pages. Format: PDF
Abstract: The presence of the Hmong population in the United States has brought up many issues and concerns since they began immigrating here shortly after their tragic loss ofthe Vietnam War. Among these concerns is the area of education. The language barrier has presented many challenges for the Hmong with their education. The researcher believes a thorough understanding of the Hmong background and their life in the United States can be beneficial in assessing their needs in improving their education. Parents were assessed in this study from a survey developed by the researchersupplying insight on Hmong parents and their involvement and influence on their children in education. Children were assessed by using the Standardized Test for Assessment of Reading (STAR). The parent and children data were then correlated to provide the findings for the study. Results from this study show that a positive correlation exists between parent education level, parents providing homework assistance for their kids, the amount of English spoken in the home, and the number of years living in the United States with the students’ grade equivalency scores (GES) on the STAR.
Title: Perception of early marriage and future educational goals attainment for Hmong female adolescents. Author: Mana Vue. Source: M.S. Thesis, University of Wisconsin-Stout. Location: Menominee, WI. Year: 2000. Additional Source Information: N.A. Pagination: 69 pages Format: PDF
Abstract: The main purpose of this study is to examine the correlational study on perception of early marriage and future educational goals for Hmong female adolescents. The participants were a convenience sample consisting of 40 respondents drawn from St. Paul, MN, Eau Claire and Menomonie, WI.The respondents range from age 14 to 19 years old. A fifty-two item questionnaire regarding perception of early marriage and future educational goals that includes demographic questions,opinion type questions regarding early marriage and future educational goals using a Likert Scale response, and rankings. A significant difference was found when there is a positive perception of early marriage and lower educational goals for the respondents. This research also found that even though respondents' parents may not be educated the respondents still have high educational goals.No significant difference was found for educational goals for married and single female respondents. The study also further show that married respondents without children will have higher educational goals when compare to married respondents with children. Included in theresearch paper are counseling implications and future research recommendations.
Title: The availability of adequate educational support programs for Southeast Asians as English as a second language students in Wausau East High School. Author: Frank Chua Vang. Source: M.S. Thesis, University of Wisconsin-Stout. Location: Menominee, WI. Year: 1999. Additional Source Information: N.A. Pagination: 52 pages. Format: PDF
Abstract: This research examined the availability of adequate educational support programs for Southeast Asian English as a Second Language students in Wausau East High School. There are approximately 250 Southeast Asian students enrolled at Wausau East High School. A primary concern in Southeast Asian communities is that educational support should be provided on mainstream levels. Otherwise, ESL students may not succeed with their educational goals.
Title: An examination of gangs in Eau Claire, Wisconsin and the community's racial perception of gangs. Authors: Mary Beth Higgins and Ka Vang. Source: M.S. Thesis, University of Wisconsin-Stout. Location: Menominee, WI. Year: 1999. Additional Source Information: N.A. Pagination: 59 pages Format: PDF
Abstract: The purpose of this study is two-fold: to examine the racial, gender, and ethnic makeup of gangs in Eau Claire, Wisconsin and to study the community's perception of gangs. The results of this study will be shared with the Eau Claire School District and the Eau Claire Police Department to assist in combatting the gang problem in Eau Claire.
Title: Hmong youth attitudes toward early marriage. Author: Chusee Vue. Source: M.S. Thesis, University of Wisconsin-Stout. Location: Menominee, WI. Year: 1999. Additional Source Information: N.A. Pagination: 73 pages Format: PDF
Abstract: The purpose of this study was to determine the attitude of Hmong youth towards early marriage. The subjects of this study were 50 Hmong youth from Dunn County who were attending middle and high school in Menominee, WI. A total of 50 surveys were distributed and 43 students participated in the study.
Title: An investigation of Hmong students' performance on four standardized cognitive ability measures. Author: Jodi Preston. Source: M.S. Thesis, University of Wisconsin-Stout. Location: Menominee, WI. Year: 1999. Additional Source Information: N.A. Pagination: 39 pages Format: PDF
Abstract: This study investigated the parameters of a valid assessment of cognitive ability for students of Hmong origin who were referred for suspected exceptional educational needs. The sample consisted of 56 Hmong students aged 6 years 4 months to 13 years 0 months.
Title: An investigation of Hmong students' performance on four standardized cognitive ability measures. Author: Jennifer Xiong. Source: M.S. Thesis, University of Wisconsin-Stout. Location: Menominee, WI. Year: 1999. Additional Source Information: N.A. Pagination: 102 pages Format: PDF
Abstract: This study explored obstacles to higher education for Hmong high school students. The objectives of the study were to 1. Describe the attitudes Hmong students have toward setting career goals. 2. Identify behaviors Hmong students experience as it relates to their aspirations and expectations. 3. Describe perceptions Hmong students have concerning obstacles to their career aspirations.
Title: English proficiency level correlated with cumulative grade point average for selected Southeast Asian students by gender, grade level, and birthplace. Author: Debra M. Marsh. Source: M.S. Thesis, University of Wisconsin-Stout. Location: Menominee, WI. Year: 1998. Additional Source Information: N.A. Pagination: 36 pages Format: PDF
Abstract: A statistical analysis was done using a sample of 163 Southeast Asian students exploring the correlation between Grade Point Average and Limited English Proficiency as well as how GPA and LEP level might be impacted by gender, grade level and birthplace.
Title: Hmong high school students' attitudes and aspirations toward education. Author: Xiong A. Lo. Source: M.S. Thesis, University of Wisconsin-Stout. Location: Menominee, WI. Year: 1998. Additional Source Information: N.A. Pagination: 47 pages Format: PDF
Abstract: This study of Hmong high school students' attitudes toward high school graduation as well as their aspirations for higher education at the post-secondary level was conducted, to determine, what, if any, differences exist between gender, academic classifications, socio-economic duration of staying in America, and academic achievement in regards to self-reported attitudes and aspirations.
Title: Hmong parents attitude and perception toward Hmong juvenile delinquency in America. Author: Tou K. Vang. Source: M.S. Thesis, University of Wisconsin-Stout. Location: Menominee, WI. Year: 1998. Additional Source Information: N.A. Pagination: 70 pages Format: PDF
Abstract: The purpose of this study was to understand the Hmong parents' attitude and perception toward juvenile delinquency in the Eau Claire Area Hmong community.
Title: Hmong perception and behaviors regarding shamanic practice and western medicine. Author: See Vang. Source: M.S. Thesis, University of Wisconsin-Stout. Location: Menominee, WI. Year: 1998. Additional Source Information: N.A. Pagination: 68 pages Format: PDF
Abstract: This study explores the attitudes and behaviors of the Hmong residents in the Eau Claire and Menominee, WI areas toward the use of traditional Hmong shamanic practices and western medical practices. The purpose of this study focused on how the Hmong people perceive their traditional shamanic practices and western medical practices.
Title: Parental influences and academic success of Hmong adolescent students is there a relationship? Author: Song Lor. Source: M.S. Thesis, University of Wisconsin-Stout. Location: Menominee, WI. Year: 1998. Additional Source Information: N.A. Pagination: 80 pages Format: PDF
Abstract: This study examined the relationship of parental involvement, acculturation level, parent educational level and academic success among Hmong adolescent students. Thirty students from Saint Paul and Menominee, WI participated in the study. The survey instrument used for the study included completion of an acculturation level scale along with a parent involvement questionnaire for each parent and student.
Title: The relationship between crime and depression within the Wausau area Hmong youth community. Author: Yang, Tong S. Source: M.S. Thesis, University of Wisconsin-Stout. Location: Menominee, WI. Year: 1998. Additional Source Information: N.A. Pagination: 54 pages Format: PDF
Abstract: This research study investigated the level of difference in depression between Hmong youths who have a history of criminal activities and those who do not have a history of criminal activity. All participants were 12 to 18 year old Hmong youth from the Wausau area.
Title: Where they are now the second follow-up study of the 1992 college-bound Hmong graduates. Author: Youa Xiong. Source: M.S. Thesis, University of Wisconsin-Stout. Location: Menominee, WI. Year: 1998. Additional Source Information: N.A. Pagination: 63 pages Format: PDF
Abstract: Attaining an education can lead to the independence of the Hmong people. A large number of Hmong men and women from the Wausau area have gone on to college after high school to acquire a degree in a career that will ensure a better life for their children's future. This study is the second followup study of a 1992 Hmong senior college-bound graduating class.
Title: Current Hmong Perceptions of their Speaking, Reading, and Writing Ability and Cultural Values as Related to Language and Cultural Maintenance. Author: Vicky Xiong-Lor. Source: E.d.D Dissertation, California State University, Fresno. Location: Fresno, California. Year: 2015. Additional Source Information: N.A. Pagination: 196 pages. Format: PDF
Abstract: The literature showed that one language is lost every 2 weeks, and that by the end of the 21st century, there would only be 100 languages left in the world. The Hmong people are one of the newest refugees from Laos. They came to America 40 years ago. According to Pfeifer, Sullivan, Yang, and Yang (2013), there are about eight million Hmong people worldwide, and 256,430 of them live in the United States. Today, the Hmong students are losing their language at an alarming rate. The purpose of this study was to investigate the current perceptions held by Hmong people ages 18 and older about the Hmong language and whether or not it should and could be maintained and passed on to future generations. This study hopes to create awareness in the community and prevent the Hmong language from disappearing from the Ethnologue. A sequential mixed methods design was used to collect the data. Findings showed that respondents perceived the Hmong language as important and would like to see it preserved for future generations.
Title: What is a good girl? The Evolution of Feminine Identity in the American Hmong Community. Author: Mieke Nicole Lisuk. Source: MA Thesis, California State University, Sacramento. Location: Sacramento, California. Year: 2015. Additional Source Information: N.A. Pagination: 128 pages. Format: PDF
Abstract: Traditional Hmong culture was a patriarchal society with marriages arranged by male clan elders. The Hmong were recruited by the CIA to assist in the Vietnam War and later fled to Thailand. American education and notions of western culture were introduced in the Thai camps. Hmong marriage rituals changed after resettlement in the United States. Through exposure to education and American culture, women challenged old world traditions and opted to delay marriage and children in favor of education.
Title: The impact of culture and acculturation on the academic achievement of Hmong American college students. Author: Linda Vang. Source: Ed.D Dissertation, California State University, Fresno. Location: Fresno, California. Year: 2015. Additional Source Information: N.A. Pagination: 153 pages. Format: PDF
Abstract: Each year, the population in the United States grows more diverse, and that diversity is being reflected in the classroom. Because students come from different social, cultural, and ethnic backgrounds, it is important to uncover how these factors impact students’ academic achievement, particularly among those whose cultural capital differs from that of the mainstream. The objective of this research study was to determine the extent to which cultural factors and acculturation impact the academic achievement of Hmong American college students as measured by their grade point averages. Using a mix-methods approach that was grounded in theories of social identity and cultural capital, the researcher gathered data from Hmong students residing in California, Minnesota, and Wisconsin. The quantitative and qualitative data include students’ perceptions of their family, cultural heritage, and native language fluency, as well as students’ experiences in academia. Findings reveal that certain factors within culture and acculturation, such as family and perceptions of gender, do impact the academic performance of Hmong college students.
Title: Former Hmong Refugees in Sacramento County: Perceptions of their Acculturation and Assimilation Issues. Authors: Che Cha and Pa Lor. Source: M.A. Project, California State University, Sacramento. Location: Sacramento, California. Year: 2015. Additional Source Information: N.A. Pagination: 88 pages. Format: PDF
Abstract: Acculturation can be defined as transformations people experience as a result of contact with culturally different perceptions and when two or more cultures come in contact. Assimilation can be defined as a process of boundary reduction that can occur in which persons of diverse ethnic and racial backgrounds interact. This research Project explored acculturation and assimilation difficulties of former Hmong refugees in Sacramento County, California. Former Hmong refugees that attended the Sacramento Hmong New Year were recruited as sample subjects. Findings indicated that 65.7% the former refugee received some type of education besides English as a Second Language (ESL) classes, and 34.3% did not receive any education. Furthermore, a social work implication is law makers' ability and motivation to continue to pass policies supporting the many programs that work to help strengthen the refugees to adjust to mainstream society.
Title: Academic Achievement of Hmong Students at Sacramento State University. Author: Pa Nhia Xiong Source: M.A. Thesis, California State University, Sacramento. Location: Sacramento, California. Year: 2015. Additional Source Information: N.A. Pagination: 69 pages. Format: PDF
Abstract: This research project examines the academic attainment and achievement disparity in higher education among Hmong students. The purpose of this project is to identify the disparity and attribute to factors that impact the unequal attainment rates of college degrees between the two genders at California State University, Sacramento. Theories such as ecological, resilience, and self-determination aids the study in understanding how education can be used as an empowerment tool for Hmong women who come from a traditionally patriarchal society. Out of the 326 Hmong students who graduated from Summer 2012 to Spring 2014 at the studied university, Hmong females graduated nearly twice (61.7%) compared to Hmong males at 38.3%.
Title: Resiliency among Hmong Women Who Were Teen Mothers. Author: Pa Nhia Xiong Source: M.A. Thesis, California State University, Fresno. Location: Fresno, California. Year: 2015. Additional Source Information: N.A. Pagination: 103 pages. Format: PDF
Abstract: Hmong teen mothers have endured many hardships throughout their lives, including financial and educational struggles along with cultural dilemma. This study was an in-depth qualitative research on the lived experiences of 10 Hmong women who were teen mothers between the ages of 13 to 20. This study focused on the adolescent mothers’ experiences and how the role of young motherhood has shaped their lives and impacted their educational and career attainments. This study highlighted the positive outcomes of Hmong women who were teen mothers and provided a deeper understanding of how these women became resilient despite adversities in life. In order to better understand them and capture their resiliency, all of the participants were asked to share their unique life stories through their own perspectives. The important themes that emerged from the young mothers’ interviews were resiliency, positive outcomes, traditional family and cultural expectations of oneself, the experiences of becoming teen mothers, and support systems. The findings from this research indicated that these Hmong women have become resilient despite hardships; therefore, being culturally married and having children at an early age did not hinder their abilities to achieve positive outcomes and educational and professional goals. In contrast, their experiences as teen mothers were the driving forces that motivated them to obtain higher education, professional careers, and financial stability.
Title: An exploration of Hmong lexical adverbs, aspects, and moods. Author: Nalee Thao See. Source: M.A. Thesis, California State University, Fresno. Location: Fresno, California. Year: 2015. Additional Source Information: N.A. Pagination: 130 pages. Format: PDF
Abstract: Cinque (1999) observes a relationship between lexical adverbs and functional heads (tense, aspect, and mood) in his analysis of various languages. He proposes a universal hierarchy of clausal functional projections and locates tense, aspect, and mood in the head of each functional projection and places adverbs in the specifier position of the projection. The current study attempts to identify and classify lexical adverbs, aspects, and moods in Hmong, a Hmong-Mien language spoken in China, Southeast Asia, and the United States, in accordance with Cinque’s classification. In addition, this study will provide a description of the placements of Hmong lexical adverbs, aspects, and moods. A lexical/functional diagnostics test will be applied to seven adverb-like Hmong morphemes to see whether they are lexical or functional categories. Once identified, the ordering of these elements will be tested against Cinque’s universal hierarchy of clausal functional projections. The current study aims to provide a more in-depth study of lexical adverbs, aspects, and moods in Hmong, in hopes of contributing to the study of the Hmong language as well as the study of adverbs, aspects, and moods in general. This is the first study of its kind for Hmong.
Title: Hmong Parent Involvement through Shared Reading. Author: Kaying Her. Source: M.A. Thesis, California State University, Sacramento. Location: Sacramento, California. Year: 2015. Additional Source Information: N.A. Pagination: 177 pages. Format: PDF
Abstract: As an educator witnessing students not complete their school work or parents communicating with the school, the lack of parental support is a frequent occurrence each school year. Students’ academic success does not solely rely on students, but also on their parents and those within the student’s environment. There have been numerous parental involvement studies on diverse populations but there has not been one specifically on English Language Learners (ELLs) Hmong parents. Since the Hmong has grown significantly within the last 40 years; a problem that Hmong still face is a lack of support for those not achieving academic success because they are “lumped” together with other Asian ethnic groups, which often hides their academic struggle. As indicated by Hing (2012) over one-third of all Hmong, Cambodian, and Laotian Americans over the age of twenty-five do not have a high school diploma. Almost 70% of Indian and over 50% of Chinese, Pakistani, and Korean-Americans over the age of twenty-five have a bachelor’s degree, while Cambodian, Hmong, and Laotian-Americans who have bachelor’s degrees average around 13% (Hing, 2011). This is a critical issue because Hmong students are not receiving the resources and the help needed to attain academic success within the educational system. The purpose of this study is to examine the impact of parent involvement workshops and training on Hmong-speaking parents’ participation in their child’s education at home. A series of 9 workshops focused on various forms of reading comprehension instruction implemented through shared reading provided in English and/or Hmong. The methods used by Hmong parents during reading to help their child were examined as well as if access to reading strategies in their primary language impacted the support they provided their children in reading. Communication between the home and school were also examined to see if there was an increase in communication after participating in the workshops. Pre-and post qualitative data came from the 4 parent participants of second grade students that consisted of parent survey and interviews. This data was analyzed to help understand the developmental growth of the parents. Also the 4 second grade students whose parents were participants in this study were interviewed to help document what parents were doing different at home. The results of qualitative data collected indicate an increase in parental involvement after participation in the training and workshops. Before the workshops, 1 out of 4 parent participants was helping their child at home and on reading. However after the study, all 4 parent participants were engaging and talking more with their child at home on homework and reading. The Hmong parents’ definition of “help” changed. Before the workshops, parents’ deifined “help” as being able to decode. If the parents could not read, then they could not help. Now parents described helping their child by talking and questioning what their child was reading, which ultimately will help their child’s literacy development.
Title: The Missing Voice of Hmong Parents: Studying Supports and Obstacles to Parent-School Communication. Author: Nalee Moua. Source: M.A. Thesis, Washington State University. Location: Pullman, WA. Year: 2015. Additional Source Information: N.A. Pagination: 60 pages. Format: PDF.
Abstract: Parental involvement continues to be a topic of interest among many teachers and school administrators. The purpose of this thesis is to gain an in-depth understanding of the Hmong community and the obstacles and barriers that may hinder their involvement in their child’s education as well as the support they may have received that helped increase their involvement. I provide this information to teachers and school administrators so they can become more aware of the reasoning behind the increase or decrease of Hmong parental involvement.
Title: I am a "Hmong American": An Exploration of the Experiences of Hmong Students in College. Author: Ducha Hang. Source: M.A. Thesis, University of Rhode Island. Location: Providence, Rhode Island. Year: 2015. Additional Source Information: N.A. Pagination: 237 pages. Format: PDF.
Abstract: As the changing demographics in the United States are steadily shifting the student populations in colleges and universities, the focus on retention and college success becomes ever more important. When marginalized and underrepresented students like Asian Americans enter post-secondary education institutions and are assumed to fit stereotypes like the Model Minority Myth which suggests that all Asian American and Pacific Islander (AAPI) students are high achievers, how do these students succeed and continue with their education under challenges including discrimination, language barriers (Lee, 2008) and cultural tension (Xiong and Lee, 2011; Ngo, 2007)? This study explores the experiences of Hmong college students. More specifically, the goal of this research is to describe how Hmong students make sense of their college experiences from their perspectives by examining two research questions: How do Hmong students make sense of their experiences in college? What contexts and situations influence the experiences and success of Hmong students in college? This research uses a phenomenological approach consisting of in-depth interviews with Hmong students from a New England college and Hmong individuals who have graduated from college. The first interview required the participants to respond to questions exploring their family backgrounds, experiences in schools prior to college, and their experiences in post-secondary education. The second interview was facilitated to provide opportunities for participants to elaborate on statements and stories from the first interview and was used for member checking. The students’ responses from the interviews were audio recorded, transcribed, and analyzed. Using phenomenological analysis and specifically thematic inductive analysis, the data were analyzed to develop themes. Three themes emerged from the data and captured how Hmong students make sense of their college experience: navigating the college system, support structures, and living in a bicultural world: “I am Hmong American”. These themes were used to develop recommendations for practitioners in higher education and suggestions for future research.
Title: Yielding to high yields: hybrid maize and Hmong food security in Hà Giang Province, Northern Vietnam. Author: Victoria Kyeyune. Source: M.A. Thesis, McGill University. Location: Montreal, Canada. Year: 2015. Additional Source Information: N.A. Pagination: 168 pages. Format: PDF
Abstract: In the Socialist Republic of Vietnam, maize is grown nationally as the primary source oflivestock feed. It also represents the preferred substitute for rice among people in rural andupland regions. Since 1991, the Vietnamese government has supported the introduction andsubsidization of hybrid maize seeds for domestic production, particularly as a component ofagricultural development policies to improve food security of upland ethnic minoritypopulations. Due in part to subsidies and propaganda, hybrid varieties have been widely adoptedby farmers to replace lower yield traditional and open pollinated varieties. This thesis aims todetermine how upland Hmong households in Ha Giang province, northern Vietnam, are adaptingto the introduction of state-supported hybrid maize seeds. This question is addressed using aconceptual framework built on sustainable livelihoods, food security, and gender analysisliterature. I conducted ethnographic fieldwork in the remotest district of Dong Van primarily using conversational and oral history interviews with Hmong householders, and semi-structured interviews with agricultural extension officers, state officials, and NGO representatives. I findthat Hmong food systems rely heavily on maize, and Hmong livelihood portfolios are gearedtowards income generation through livestock and maize alcohol. Livelihood outcomes ofadoption include higher yields, yet participants highlight various drawbacks, including limitedstorage stability and increased reliance on cash to afford seeds and associated chemical inputs.Further, the preference for taste of local maize leads some households to resist full adoption ofnew hybrid varieties and direct hybrid maize to livestock feed and alcohol production. I arguethat food security interventions must move beyond conceptualizing food security as a result offood availability alone, but also incorporate cultural acceptability of food, an understanding ofhybrid maize cultivation challenges, and the local seed diversity on which livelihoods and foodsecurity rely.
Title: Hmong students' life experiences that affect educational attainment. Author: Pam Thao. Source: M.S.W. Thesis, California State University, Stanislaus. Location: Turlock, CA. Year: 2015. Additional Source Information: N.A. Pagination: 42 pages. Format: PDF
Abstract: The purpose of this study was to explore and identify the various life experiences and factors that contributed to Hmong adults staying in college and how they ultimately graduated from college while coping with their experiences along the way. In-depth interviews were conducted with 12 Hmong students by using semi-structured, openended questions. Findings revealed that the participants' parents' life experiences in Laos, their struggles with the Vietnam War, and their relocation to the United States made a big impact on the students' decisions to attend college. Support from family and friends, professors and advisors, and the use of university services such as the Tutoring Center and Educational Opportunity Program, helped the participants remain in college and eventually graduate. Study implications suggest a need for social workers in college counseling centers. Social workers are more likely to be sensitive regarding the issues and needs of Hmong students, and they have a deeper understanding of cultural sensitivity concerning minority students. Future studies could focus on continuing to explore this topic to gain a broader and deeper knowledge base
Title: Struggles and needs of the Hmong community: an exploratory study. Author: Aimee Maihoua Xiong. Source: M.S.W. Thesis, California State University, Stanislaus. Location: Turlock, CA. Year: 2015. Additional Source Information: N.A. Pagination: 80 pages. Format: PDF
Abstract: The purpose of this study is to understand the needs of Hmong community members. In order to do so, the struggles of the Hmong community are explored to understand the circumstances that led to their needs. The intent of this study is to gain information that could be used to improve the effectiveness of programs and improve the lives of members of the Hmong community. The data are collected through a qualitative, exploratory, ethnographic study. Face-to-face interviews are utilized with a sample of seven participants to explore each participant's struggles and needs living in the United States. This researcher explores the services participants feel the Hmong community may need to improve the Hmong's lives. The results of this study reveal that participants struggled most with learning English, educational and occupational attainment, and financial hardships. The findings of this research indicate a need for services that provide information about educational and occupational attainment, learning English, and tutoring services. Additionally, participants echoed the need for a community resource and outreach center that would provide information about available services within the Hmong community. This researcher suggests social workers should be educated about the Hmong community, develop trust with the Hmong community, and consider creating programs to improve the lives of the Hmong community. Additionally, social workers should advocate for policies that provide a livable wage, fair employment practices, affordable housing, and access to affordable education.
Title: Social mobility of 1.5 and 2.0 Hmong generations in the Sacramento - San Joaquin Valley. Author: Max Xiong. Source: M.S. Thesis, Sacramento State University. Location: Sacramento, CA. Year: 2015. Additional Source Information: N.A. Pagination: 57 pages. Format: PDF
Abstract: It has been over 40 years since the Hmong have left their homeland to settle in the United States, as a result of the Vietnam War. This study compares the social mobility of the 1.5- and 2.0-generations of Hmong after their arrival to the United States. Within the Asian American population, the Hmong community has the lowest educational achievement, socioeconomic status (SES), and social and occupational mobility. This study explores social-economic status, education, social and cultural influences, as well as other factors, which are likely to affect the social mobility of the Hmong. Furthermore, this research indicates that with higher educational attainment and social and capital resources, the trajectory of Hmong’s upward mobility in the Sacramento – San Joaquin Valleys will likely be positive.
Title: The motivation for higher education among Hmong college students and the impact of parenting styles. Author: Cynthia Moua. Source: M.S.W. Thesis, California State University, Stanislaus. Location: Turlock, CA. Year: 2014. Additional Source Information: N.A. Pagination: 87 pages. Format: PDF
Abstract: The purpose of this study was to explore the educational motivating factors and the parenting styles experienced by Hmong college students. The participants of this study were Hmong college students and alumni who studied at a University of California or a California State University. The data was collected using a quantitative online survey. There were a total of 297 participants, with 220 of the participants completing the survey. The survey consisted of 27 items which measured the type of motivation and the type of parenting styles experienced by participants. The collected data were analyzed through the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) program. The results of this study revealed that the most prevalent parenting style experienced by the participants was an authoritarian (strict) parenting style, followed by an authoritative (flexible) parenting style, and a permissive (lenient) parenting style. Participants selected an authoritative parenting style as the parenting style that they felt would best promote educational motivation within Hmong students. Extrinsic motivational factors such as job security, financial stability, and family acknowledgement, was revealed to have motivated participants to obtain a college degree and would also best serve as educational motivating factors for future Hmong students. This researcher suggests that social services should advocate for policies that will implement the promotion of cultural awareness and earlier higher education awareness among minority students such as Hmong
Title: Hmong women's attitude towards higher education: what is a hyper-educated NYAB? Author: MaiHoua M. Lo. Source: M.A. Thesis, California State University, Chico. Location: Chico, CA Year: 2014. Additional Source Information: N.A. Pagination: 131 pages. Format: PDF
Abstract: From Central Asia surviving great battles, war, migrating to the mountains of Laos and resettlement in Thailand to the United States, the Hmong people have come a long way. Living in the United States the Hmong elders have resisted assimilation fearing that their children would lose all family traditions and values. The younger generations quickly acculturated transforming from traditional roles taking on new opportunities while living in the United States. Hmong daughters and nyabs are choosing to go against what people from rural Laos view as an unchangeable tradition, of following the path of getting married young and having as many children as possible. This thesis explores the contested nature of the Hmong women’s identity and their roles as it was back in their homeland, their struggles assimilating in the United States and their influences to pursue or not pursue higher education.
Title: A study of self-efficacy in a group of Hmong refugees. Author: Mai M. Yang. Source: M.A. Thesis, Smith College. Location: Northhampton, MA. Year: 2014. Additional Source Information: N.A. Pagination: 86 pages.. Format: PDF
Abstract: Social cognitive theorist Albert Bandura defined resilience as the ability to organize thoughts and actions to manage prospective and unknown situations. He called it the theory of perceived self-efficacy (Bandura, 2010). The tool used to measure this construct is called the General Self-Efficacy Scale (GSES), which assesses a broad stable sense of an individual’s personal competence to efficiently deal with a variety of stressful situations. Previous research suggested that due to its positive association with mental health and well being, the GSES and theory of self-efficacy are worthy of further examination in refugees (Sulaiman-Hill and Thompson, 2011). This study examines different variables in comparison to levels of General Perceived Self-Efficacy in a group of 49 Hmong refugee adults living in Minnesota and California. Results found language proficiency, education level, citizenship status, and years lived in the U.S. to be positive predictors of higher perceived self-efficacy. Those with higher self-efficacy reported less depressive and anxiety symptoms. Age, marital, gender, and employment statuses had no significant relationship with self-efficacy scores.
Title: "Knowing Who You Are": The Role of Ethnic Spaces in the Construction of Hmong Identities in the Twin Cities. Author: Zachary Jay Bodenner. Source: M.A. Thesis, Ohio University. Location: Athens, OH. Year: 2014. Additional Source Information: N.A. Pagination: 258 pages. Format: PDF
Abstract: The geographic literature has shown that there is a connection between ethnic spaces and ethnic identity formation and persistence. However, by focusing on the Hmong population of Minneapolis, and St. Paul, Minnesota, this qualitative research will demonstrate that different types of ethnic spaces play different roles when it comes to these complicated formulations. Ethnic identities are complex, socially constructed phenomena that shift with changing contexts, and are in fact not mutually exclusive; any individual person could identify as a member of multiple ethnic groups. These intricate identities are displayed in ethnic spaces where Hmong individuals showcase, in a variety of ways, embodiments of these identities that are symbolic, commemorative, artistic, bodily, and performative. Ethnic spaces become not only producers and re-producers of identity, but outlets for the expression of identity in all its complicated forms.
Title: "The weather is like the game we play" Hmong and Yao food security and emerging livelihood vulnerabilities in the northern uplands of Vietnam. Author: Sarah Delisle. Source: M.A. Thesis, McGill University. Location: Montreal, Canada Year: 2014. Additional Source Information: N.A. Pagination: 147 pages. Format: PDF.
Abstract: Introduced in 1986, the Socialist Republic of Vietnam's economic renovation policy, or Doi Moi, has both expanded and constricted livelihood opportunities in the northern uplands, while the introduction of modern agricultural technologies, namely hybrid rice seeds, has created new challenges for the region's largely ethnic minority householders. The incidence of extreme weather events in the region further point to a multiple-stress environment. The aim of this thesis is to assess food security and livelihood vulnerability, stresses and coping strategies among ethnic minority Hmong and Yao in Sa Pa District, northern Vietnam. To answer this aim I draw on a conceptual framework that incorporates key elements from food security, sustainable livelihoods, and vulnerability literatures. Focusing on eight villages in the Muong Hoa valley in Sa Pa District, Lao Cai province, I completed ethnographic fieldwork, including informal conversational interviews, semi-structured interviews and a Photovoice project with Hmong and Yao participants. I undertook fieldwork in summer 2012 and completed follow-up research in summer 2013. I find that Hmong and Yao food systems are exposed to internal and external stresses that diminish access to needed livelihood capitals and decrease asset productivity, as well as constrict overall food output. Householders respond by blending traditional safety nets with newer market-oriented opportunities to diversify their coping strategies. Access to livelihood capitals, especially financial and social capital, determines a household's coping capacity. In sum, while most Hmong and Yao households are resilient, I argue that the psychological impact of livelihood stresses and the lack of government support for these communities decrease resiliency and must be addressed.
Title: The Hmong journey -- a children's book on Hmong history: cultural curriculum for first grade teachers. Author: Ger Thao. Source: M.A. Thesis, California State University, Chico. Location: Chico, CA Year: 2014. Additional Source Information: N.A. Pagination: 215 pages. Format: PDF.
Abstract: Culture is a powerful influence and literature is a powerful medium. Together they form an exciting dual which offers a variety of possibilities in the classroom. The purpose of this project is to develop a picture book depicting the Hmong journey to America and cultural curriculum lessons for first grade teachers which will provide information, ideas and strategies for the sharing of Hmong cultural literature in the classroom. This curriculum will have an emphasis on one particular culture—the Hmong. Ever since 1975, the Hmong have found it difficult to remain on their native soil. The Secret War resulted in the largest mass emigration of the Hmong people in recorded history. Today, emigration is still very much part of Hmong life. It is especially likely in the United States to meet those who claim to be Hmong or to have “Hmong roots.” However, despite the presence of thousands of Hmong refugees, the Hmong in the United States receive little known attention as an Asian ethnic group. This is due to the intentional spread of the Hmong around the country. In the 21st century where the differences between groups must be tolerated rather than destroyed and diversity is more common, recognition of all cultures is essential. This curriculum serves as a mirror for establishing more authentic cultural links between the Hmong of Laos/Thailand and those living in the United States. It also opens a window on teaching K-2 students about a specific culture in our nation/community. This connection will be formed through children’s literature. The creation of the picture book The Hmong Journey and existing literature by Hmong authors and Hmong American authors will be included so that children in United States may appreciate the rich Hmong heritage. The purpose of this project is to produce a children’s picture book and cultural curriculum lessons that introduces and exposes Hmong American culture in children’s literature for first grade teachers. In order to create a picture book and curriculum, a knowledge base had to be established in the literature review. This base consists of Hmong history, Hmong culture, Hmong cultural traditions, oral traditions/storytelling, multicultural literature, and Hmong American children’s literature. Each section in Chapter II of this project signifies the need for more children’s books to be written about the Hmong American culture and implementation in the school curriculum.
Title: Academic achievement among Hmong students in California: a quantitative and comparative analysis. Author: Sue Lee. Source: Ph.D Dissertation, University of Southern California Los Angeles, California. Location: Los Angeles, California. Year: 2014. Additional Source Information: N.A. Pagination: 90 pages Format: PDF.
Abstract: This quantitative study compared Hmong high school students’ scores in English language arts (ELA) and mathematics on the 2010 California Standards Tests (CST) to the scores of other racial/ethnic student subgroups at the state level. The study further examined whether an achievement gap exists between the Hmong student subgroup and other comparable student subgroups within the same school districts while controlling for socioeconomic status, English language acquisition status, and parent education level. California state level data were used to compare the CST ELA and CST math mean scores for 12 major subgroups for this study. For a more accurate comparison of student subgroups receiving the same curriculum and academic resources, data within 14 California school districts that reported having tested a considerable Hmong student population were further examined. Using data from the 14 school districts, the racial/ethnic student subgroups’ mean performance tiered scores and mean scaled scores on the CST ELA and CST mathematics were reported by grade level, and then again with the control variables. Lastly, Cohen's d was used to measure the effect sizes. The analysis and effect sizes indicated that a comparable achievement gap exists between the Hmong student subgroup and other racial/ethnic student subgroups. Specifically, Hmong students in California did not perform well compared to the majority, if not all, of the other racial/ethnic student subgroups at the state and district level. Moreover, the three consistent student subgroups found to be performing at the level of the Hmong student subgroup in ELA and mathematics were the Black/African American, Hispanic/Latino, and Laotian student subgroups. The findings of this study point towards other practices and research needed to better understand the realities of the Hmong educational experience, which is the start of understanding best practices for teaching Hmong students.
Title: A story of the people: the hmong, in CIA's secret war in Laos during the Vietnam conflict: a supplemental unit to the history/social science curriculum. Author: Chao Vang. Source: M.A. Thesis, California State University, Sacramento. Location: Sacramento, California. Year: 2013. Additional Source Information: N.A. Pagination: 277 pages Format: PDF
Abstract: The current History/Social Science Framework currently used by social studies educators in today's classroom is substantially out of date as it was written in 1986. The primary authors of this document were European American senior scholars working within a European American perspective who in return must have been educated in the early 1970s. As a result, the “History/Social Science is structured largely as a story of European immigration and the construction of a nation around Judeo-Christian values and European political institutions" (Sleeter & Stillman, 2005, p. 43) due to the political and ethnic makeup of the people commissioned to draft the 1986 framework. Since the initial adoption in 1987, the History/Social Science Framework is supposed to be updated every seven years but has been "readopted three times with only minor updates" (Sleeter & Stillman, 2005 p. 33). According to Campbell (2000), "the classical, Eurocentric curriculum inaccurately represents history and the humanities, discounting or ignoring the contributions of people of color" (p. 305) Because of this, the present History/Social Science curriculum is divorced from the realities and experiences of the youth, particularly, students of color many of who cannot relate to History/Social Science curriculum. The historical content, facts and figures printed in textbooks and taught by educators is predetermined. Due to the framework, most schools fail to teach an accurate or omits, the complete history of minorities, such as the recruitment and contribution of the Hmong by the CIA during the conflict in Vietnam. This is a problem created in part by the failure to revise the History/Social Science Framework and Standards. Thus, with this lack of an inclusive and equitable curriculum, the responsibility is placed on teachers to develop the multicultural and Hmong focused lessons for California's students. The absence of Hmong American history from the standard curriculum in today's public schools has created a disconnection with Hmong American's identity, culture and heritage. Hmong American students feel alienated because they are group labeled and lumped as the model minority and their culture and history is excluded as a larger part of American history. For this reason, proponents of teaching and incorporating history of minorities history into the curricula suggest a student learning about his or her culture not only improves individual self-esteem and provides a sense of identity, but raises their grades and increases interest in school (Asante, 1991; Banks, 1993; King 1992; Ladson-Billing, 1999). The same can be said for Hmong American students who feel alienated because the history and contribution of the Hmong is underrepresented in school curriculum. Thus, the teaching of this supplemental unit on Hmong American history in a school setting intention is to provide an equitable and need to empower Hmong American students, who are one of the lowest academically performing minorities in California underrepresented and overtly omitted in school curriculum. For this supplemental unit on Hmong and their contribution to American in Laos during the conflict in Southeast Asia to be successful, the author identify that the incorporation and implementing culturally responsive and critical pedagogical teaching strategies in essential.
Title: A phenomenological study of Hmong women's experience with forced marriage in the Hmong culture. Author: Paj Tshiab Vang. Source: M.S.W. Thesis, California State University, Fresno. Location: Fresno, California. Year: 2013. Additional Source Information: N.A. Pagination: 96 pages Format: PDF
Abstract: This exploratory qualitative research study utilizes feminist standpoint theory and shame cultures to explore the experience of Hmong women who married young by force of the family, due to a situation that is considered taboo in the Hmong culture. Three situational taboos were considered in this study: (a) premarital pregnancy, (b) bringing the girl home later than the parent(s) liking, and (c)visiting the girl without parental knowledge.Semi-structured interviews with five Hmong women residing in the Central Valley of California were conducted. This study is guided by the principles of hermeneutic phenomenology as described by Van Manen (as cited in Creswell, 2007) and Creswell (2007). Three themes emerged in the study: shame, freedom, and resilience.Findings indicate that shame and the value placed on saving face in the Hmong culture were contributing factors to their forced marriage.
Title: Mobilités de travail et (re)construction des rapports sociaux au sein d’une communauté Hmong de Chine (province du Guizhou). Author: Sebastien Carrier. Source: PhD Dissertation, University of Montreal. Location: Montreal, Quebec, Canada. Year: 2013. Additional Source Information: French Language. Pagination: 565 pages Format: PDF
Abstract: Rural-urban mobility is unquestionably one of the most striking phenomena that China has experienced since the wide-ranging reforms of the 1980s. Besides its unparalleled magnitude, it has been an essential foundation of its economic transition and development. But if the social impact of mobility has been extensively studied in cities where ‘peasants’ (as farmers are called in China) sojourn, little is known of the effects of mobility in their community of origin, and even less when the community belongs to a ‘minority nationality’. Based on fieldwork conducted over an 18-month period, this dissertation examines the impact of labor migration on the social (re)construction of a Hmong (Miao) community in rural China. Practices of mobility for work purposes are twofold in the studied community: migrants are either itinerant herbalists in close-by cities or factory workers in the eastern cities of the country. An original approach to social change has been used, integrating the spheres of imagination and practice, and takes into account the economic and spatial components of the migration phenomenon. Moreover, this research proposes an innovative theoretical model, by giving equal importance to the discourses and the actions in the process of social change of both migrants and non-migrants. First, this study reveals the recent remodeling of the spatial and the economic foundations of the studied community. It shows that places, scales, social networks and borders all structure the community’s territory – in both real and imaginary spheres – and that they have become more complex and numerous as a result of the unprecedented circular migration of its inhabitants to and from their village. At the economic level, besides confirming dominance of remittances at the household level, it also appears that development and inequality issues are now addressed by members of the community primarily through the phenomenon of migration. Second, the results expose the strong imprint of mobility in the social sphere. In need of support, migrants and left-behinds are increasingly seeking help within their lineage, clan, village, and matrilineal networks. In this process, it is not uncommon for them to consciously go against the traditional family hierarchies. Through mobility, long marginalized groups such as women and young adults, have now gained esteem, autonomy and decision-making power. Meanwhile, the social order has shifted. It is no longer the volume of agricultural production, but the number of migrant workers, which now determine the social classes within the community. Finally, in the broader context of minorities in China and the Southeast Asian Massif, this dissertation addresses the debate about the social impact of mobility beyond the paradigms of modernization and integration. Unlike most of the literature pertaining to this issue, this research provides evidence that it is not enough to focus on the changes experienced by migrants through contact with urban dwellers and their so-called modern way of life. It shows that it is necessary to recognize the capacity for initiative and social innovation of all the members of these minorities, migrants or non-migrants. It also stresses the centrality of the question of identity. Feelings of marginality and subordination remain strong and they do not seem to fade as a result of migration. On the contrary, these feelings seem to most often result in a strengthening of social and community bonds within these minorities.
Title: Cash crops and climate shocks: flexible livelihoods in Southeast Yunnan, China. Author: Clara Champalle. Source: M.A. Thesis, McGill University. Location: Montreal. Year: 2013. Additional Source Information: N.A. Pagination: 161 pages Format: PDF
Abstract: The rural landscape of the People's Republic of China has changed dramatically from land collectivization in the 1950s to the decollectivization reforms initiated by Deng Xiaoping in 1979. By the mid-1980s each rural household had again become responsible for its own agricultural production, and food security began to improve, even within the most remote areas. To further this agrarian transition, in the late 1990s the central state devised the Western Development Strategy to advance its 'less developed' western regions, within which provincial governments subsidized cash crops. The aim of this thesis is first to examine the importance of cash crops and related subsidies for Han and minority nationality farmer households in Honghe Hani-Yi Autonomous Prefecture, Yunnan, China; second, to assess how extreme weather events affect these farmers' livelihoods and to investigate the coping mechanisms they employ. To answer this aim I draw on a conceptual framework that incorporates key elements from sustainable livelihoods, food security, and vulnerability and resilience to climate variability literatures. Focusing on four townships in Honghe Prefecture, southeast Yunnan, I completed statistical analyses of quantitative data regarding recent extreme weather events in the region and ethnographic fieldwork, including conversational interviews with farmers and semi-structured interviews with local officials completed in summer 2011. I find that state-sponsored cash crops do not always bring higher financial capital rewards and that cash crop farmers have been increasingly exposed to extreme precipitation and temperatures since the year 2000, which constrain their access to livelihood capitals, essential for (re)investing in cash cropping. In turn, farmers cope with and/or adapt to climate shocks according to their initial livelihood decision-making and the specifics of the event, while also being influenced by their location and ethnicity. In sum, I argue that farmers' vulnerability is rooted in social, temporal and spatial variables, many of which are not being considered by state officials.
Title: Hmong voter education forums drawing out Hmong voters. Author: Cindy Vang. Source: M.S.W. Thesis, California State University, Sacramento. Location: Montreal. Year: 2013. Additional Source Information: N.A. Pagination: 77 pages Format: PDF
Abstract: The study focused on voter education forums targeted at the Hmong population held prior to the November 2012 elections as a basis for determining whether additional work and services are needed to increase the civic engagement of Hmong community members. To identify whether Hmong voter turnout increased as a result of the voter education forums, thirty attendees of the voter education forums were surveyed following the November 2012 elections. Findings from the study indicate that there is a significant association between Hmong participants who spoke English who viewed the information provided at the voter education forums as valuable. More than half the participants surveyed were not born in the United States and 90% (n = 27) of the attendees reported to have voted in the November 2012 elections.
Title: Hmong perceptions of health and healing: shamanism, mental health, and medical interventions. Author: Yer Yang. Source: M.S.W. Thesis, California State University, Sacramento. Location: Sacramento. Year: 2013. Additional Source Information: N.A. Pagination: 91 pages Format: PDF
Abstract: This study explored how the Hmong understand and interpret illness, their perceptions of healing, and how they go about seeking treatment. Thirty voluntary participants were identified through snowball sampling and completed a survey that measured their language and cultural capacities, health experiences, and understanding of mental health. Through quantitative data analysis, the chi-square test of independence found a significant association between religion and mental health seeking behaviors of participants (p<.043). 44% of Christian participants said they have thought about seeking mental health treatment in the past compared to only 5% of Shamans. Recommendations of the study are to provide more education to the Hmong community about health (ie: mental health) in order to address stigma and mis-education. Another recommendation is to consider their cultural beliefs when explaining services and offering treatment.
Title: Displaced histories : refugee critique and the politics of Hmong American remembering . Author: Ma Vang. Source: PhD Dissertation, University of California, San Diego. Location: San Diego, California. Year: 2012. Additional Source Information: N.A. Pagination: 250 pages Format: PDF
Abstract: Displaced histories name Hmong racial subjection as a project of displacing them from both the nation and history through war and knowledge production. This racial formation is constitutive of the United States so-called "secret war" in Laos (1961-1975) that was quietly and publicly known yet not made much of. Laos has been viewed as a Cold War "pawn" to the superpowers of the US and Soviet Union, and it constituted a crucial yet marginal position in relation to the Vietnam War. This dissertation investigates how the war as a historical period is also a project of knowledge production. Thus the war's secrecy not only hid US violence against Hmong and Laos but also produced racial knowledge to configure Hmong as gendered racial subjects who are primitive and exist outside of historical time. Furthermore, secrecy is a gendered racial configuration because it involved the twin projects of militarism and rescue. Secrecy's production of Hmong outside of history is how they have been configured as racial subjects because historical absence is a product of racial formation. Therefore, Hmong racial subjection highlights how history is a nationstate project and a signifier of one's emergence in modernity. This dissertation excavates history as it relates to nation and belonging because the war was not a secret for Hmong who were recruited by the CIA to fight as proxy US soldiers and bore the brunt of the violence. I argue that Hmong refugees/Americans contend with the forgetting of their history as part of a process to formulate histories and belonging in displacement. Hmong maintain that they saved US American lives in Laos yet their experiences in the US do not reflect the sacrifices they made to the US government. An estimated 35,000 Hmong died in battle while disease and starvation caused the death of almost one- third of Hmong in Laos when forced to flee from their homes. The soldiers, their families, and Hmong civilians fleeing from this invisible war in 1975 and years afterwards were targets of political persecution due to their collaboration with the US. Thus I foreground the refugee figure as a site to unravel the structure of secrecy as a fundamental function of state making, particularly US democracy since World War II. It also opens up the questions about nation, race, US empire, belonging, and knowledge production. Yet the Hmong refugee also constitutes an embodied category that activates nuanced responses to US historical amnesia and convoluted treatment. My analysis employs the "refugee archive" to emphasize Hmong displaced histories as a perspective to doing historical analysis that understands the past in relation to the present
Title: Markets in the mountains: upland trade-scapes, trader livelihoods, and state development agendas in northern Vietnam. Author: Christine Bonnin. Source: PhD Dissertation, McGill University (Canada). Location: Montreal. Year: 2012. Additional Source Information: N.A. Pagination: 465 pages Format: PDF
Abstract: In this dissertation I investigate market formation and integration in the northern uplands of Vietnam (Lào Cai province) through a focus on the everyday processes by which markets are created and (re)shaped at the confluence of local initiatives, state actions, and wider market forces. Against a historically-informed backdrop of the 'local' context with regard to ethnicity, cultural practice, livelihoods, markets and trade, I situate and critique the broader Vietnam state agenda. At present, this supports regularising market development often in accordance with a lowland majority model, and promoting particular aspects of tourism that at times mesh, while at others clash, with upland subsistence needs, customary practice, and with uplanders successfully realising new opportunities. State-led market integration initiatives are often instituted without informed consideration of their effects on the specific nature and complexity of upland trade, such as for the realisation of materially and culturally viable livelihoods. Conceptually, I weave together a framework for the study that draws key elements from three main strands of scholarship: 1) actor-oriented approaches to livelihoods; 2) social embeddedness, social network and social capital approaches to market trade and exchange, and; 3) the commodity-oriented literature. Fieldwork was situated in the northern Vietnam province of Lào Cai, in five upland districts bordering China's Yunnan province. The research draws primarily on ethnographic methods: conversational interviews, semi-structured interviews, life histories, participant observation, and market surveys. Research informants included ethnic Hmong, Yao, Kinh, Nùng, Tày and Giáy small-scale market traders, state officials, market management representatives, non-governmental organisations, and foreign and domestic tourists. Primary field sites encompassed 14 upland marketplaces in Lào Cai province, with additional visits to markets in neighbouring upland provinces and across the border in Yunnan to complement the data gathered.This thesis is broadly divided into two main results sections. Firstly, I explore upland markets as a critical social interface through which to understand the role that centripetal and centrifugal forces play within the contemporary restructuring of marketplaces, commodity networks, and trade dynamics in Lào Cai's uplands. I investigate the role of the state in the current development and modernisation of marketplaces within the province, as well as how recent improvements in connective technologies are working to alter upland trade-scapes. In describing these structural changes, the specific and diverse responses of upland traders to these transformations are explored - such as accommodation, negotiation, as well as overt and implicit forms of resistance - in terms of how these groups seek to carve out a living through their own constructions of marketplace trade. In the second section, I devote three chapters to in-depth case studies of upland trade networks for key cultural commodities, historically produced and/or traded by Hmong and Yao ethnic minorities: water buffalo livestock, upland artisanal alcohols, and handmade and manufactured ethnic minority textiles. Through these investigations, I address how upland markers of social difference and social support networks work to influence trade and the way actors shape their exchange activities. Focus is placed on the particular strategies used by different groups of upland traders to engage with trade opportunities and negotiate constraints in order to enhance their livelihoods. This study makes a vital contribution through attention to the production and trade of products which are of historical cultural and material relevance to upland ethnic minorities themselves, as well as to endogenous perspectives of upland marketplace trading.
Title: Multicultural Recruitment: A Case on Hmong Female College-Bound Students. Author: Meng Her. Source: MA Thesis, University of Minnesota, Duluth. Location: Duluth. Year: 2012. Additional Source Information: N.A. Pagination: 71 pages Format: PDF
Abstract: This study is a mixed method research looking at Hmong Women and their pursuit of higher education. It is a norm in the Hmong culture for women to have less privilege than men which leads to less freedom and more household chores. Studies have been done by other researchers in the 1990’s and found these cultural norms as barriers to higher education among Hmong women. This study looks at the barriers to see if it limits women’s opportunities to pursue a college degree but will also compare if there are differences between Hmong men and women. The hypothesis is that distance away from home may be an issue among the Hmong population when choosing a college for their daughters. Data will be collected by surveying Hmong college students in Minnesota and Wisconsin as well as interviewing Hmong college students, parents, and educators. Suggestions for future research will be to focus on men’s pursuit of higher education.
Title: The College Search Process: Differences between Hmong and Somali Students. Author: Bryan Karl. Source: MA Thesis, University of Minnesota, Duluth. Location: Duluth. Year: 2012. Additional Source Information: N.A. Pagination: 60 pages Format: PDF
Abstract: The researcher explored the college search process of three Hmong and one Somali student at four Minnesota higher education institutions using a phenomenological approach. Minority students, underrepresented/underserved students, are highly sought after by colleges across the nation. There are more than 60,000 Hmong and 30,000 Somali within the state of Minnesota. The author presented results utilizing six themes that emerged as noteworthy contributors of research participants during their college search process. The themes include: Residence, Ethnicity, Gender, Family Educational Background, Predispositions to Education, and Secondary Contributors.
Title: Where Gendered Spaces Bend: The Rubber Phenomenon in Northern Laos. Author: Anna-Klara Lindeborg. Source: PhD Dissertation, Uppsala University (Sweden). Location: Sweden Year: 2012. Additional Source Information: N.A. Pagination: 272 pages Format: PDF
Abstract: This thesis seeks to understand and explain gendered everyday life in the village of HatNyao in Northwestern Laos, specifically in relation to rubber cultivation, by using an ethnographic approach and methods. The ‘rubber boom’ is changing the landscape of Northern Laos, and in the process is reshaping gendered everyday life. Gender relations in the village of HatNyao are undergoing various transformations whereby previous gender structures start to erode. Additional changes will probably continue to occur, largely due to increasing labour shortages. Gendered everyday life in HatNyao is therefore ‘bending’ with the changes associated with rubber cultivation, as well as in relation to different spaces of the everyday and household diversity. The concept of ‘paradoxical gendered spaces’ is invoked to capture the ways in which the dimensions and activities of the everyday vary with, in particular, ethnicity and age. Most households in HatNyao have improved their living conditions due to rubber cultivation. Nevertheless, inequalities are increasing within the village: better-off households have improved their situation, while for others it has been more difficult to adapt to the new conditions of everyday life and rubber cultivation. As the number of villages introducing rubber in Laos is increasing, alongside the number reaching the crucial tapping stage, it is essential to understand how rubber cultivation in smallholder communities interacts with gender relations and the division of labour. There are thus both ‘good’ and ‘bad’ outcomes from introducing rubber in Laos, since it depends on the context, as well as on the diverse spaces of the everyday.
Title: Hmong music in northern Vietnam : identity, tradition and modernity. Author: Lonan O' Brian. Source: PhD Dissertation, University of Sheffield. Location: United Kingdom. Year: 2012. Additional Source Information: N.A. Pagination: 310 pages Format: PDF
Abstract: While previous studies of Hmong music in Vietnam have focused solely on traditional music,this thesis aims to counteract those limitedrepresentations through an examination of multiple forms of music used by the Vietnamese-Hmong. My research shows that in contemporary Vietnam, the lives and musical activities of the Hmong are constantly changing, and their musical traditions are thoroughly integrated with and impacted by modernity. Presentational performances and high fidelity recordings are becoming more prominent in this cultural sphere, increasing numbers are turning to predominantly foreign-produced Hmong popular music,and elements of Hmong traditional music have been appropriated and reinvented as part of Vietnam’s national musical heritage and tourism industry. Depending on the context, these musics can be used to either support the political ideologies of the Party or enable individuals to resist them. Access to an unprecedented diversity of musical styles has also led to an enhanced reverence for traditional music. While older musicians bemoan the changes to traditional practices, younger ones ensure the sustainability of the tradition by manipulating it in response to fluctuating contexts. Based on fifteen months of fieldwork with the Vietnamese-Hmong community, my descriptions and analyses of thismusical culture illustrate how people use music to position themselves socially in contemporary Vietnam. This thesis demonstrates how identities and boundaries are negotiated through musical activities that principally serve to make Hmong notions about life articulate. Case studies of individuals and groups of musicians, contextualised by relevant social, political and economic data, illustrate the depth and breadth of Hmong musics in northern Vietnam. Part I of the thesis introduces the research and outlines the history of the Vietnamese-Hmong, part II focuses on female and male traditional music and ritual practices,and part III examines how the Hmong are engaging with the diverse musical world in which they live.
Title: Hmong 2.0: Négociations identitaires en ligne dans les marges chinoises. Author: Mathieu Poulin-Lamarre. Source: MA Thesis, Laval University (Canada). Location: Quebec City, Canada. Year: 2012. Additional Source Information: N.A. Pagination: 160 pages Format: PDF.
Abstract: Based on datas from an ethnographic fieldwork conducted in the Chinese province of Yunnan in 2010, this thesis tries to conceptualize new practices of identity négociations linked with the emergence of Internet in the Southwestern margins of China. Focusing on the Hmong minority, part of the Miao minzu since the 50s. the results suggest that the personalization of an online virtual space create notable forms of critique which challenge the objectivating definition of the minority the government put forward. Moreover, the growing influence of the non-chinese Hmong introduces contradictions in the official discourse, leading to practices of resubjectivation. Drawing on Michel Foucault and Judith Butler's conceptualization of the subject and power, Hmong online photo sharing and its effects on the subjectivities make the core of the analysis.
Title: Hmong Music and Language Cognition: An Interdisciplinary Investigation. Author: Nicholas Poss. Source: PhD Dissertation, Ohio State University. Location: Columbus, OH. Year: 2012. Additional Source Information: N.A. Pagination: 119 pages Format: PDF.
Abstract: Speech surrogacy, which includes the performance of verbal messages on musical instruments, is found in a variety of cultures. The developing field of music and language cognition can benefit from the study of these communicative forms, which confound our expectations of the boundaries between speech and music. Previous studies have focused on semiotic relationships of similarity between musical sound and speech. While this type of analysis can suggest strategies for decoding messages, it cannot explain how listeners make use of this information. Using methodology derived from psycholinguistics, this dissertation investigates speech surrogate cognition from the perspective of Hmong culture to find out how listeners understand verbal messages encoded in performances on aerophones called raj. In one experiment, musical phrases of varying lengths were presented to skilled listeners to investigate the strategies used in understanding performances. The results show that listeners are highly successful at identifying phrases. For ambiguous words, listeners relied mainly on the established relationships between musical pitch and lexical tone to infer meaning rather than broad distinctions between types of syllable onsets. This demonstrates a problem with the semiotic approach to analyzing speech surrogates: listeners do not necessarily make use of everything encoded in the signal. Finally, there were different reponse patterns for phrases of different lengths, indicating that the context of messages affects how listeners interpret them.
Title: Impacts of participation in Hmong as world language classes on outcomes for Hmong American high school students. Author: William Vang. Source: E.d.D. Dissertation, California State University, Sacramento. Location: Sacramento, CA. Year: 2012. Additional Source Information: N.A. Pagination: 330 pages Format: PDF
Abstract: This study examines the consequences for urban Hmong American high school students of participating in two years sequences of high school level Hmong as World Language courses. The Hmong population in the United States is a product of war, exile and resettlement at the end of the Vietnam War. Since their arrival, both the Hmong people and American social and political institutions have been trying to learn how to deal with each other more effectively and respectfully. One of the key American institutions engaging with the Hmong diaspora has been the public schools. This study explores one program in one public high school in north central California, initiated by Hmong educators themselves. The Hmong as World language program seeks to provide relevant academic education for Hmong American students by teaching Hmong as a “foreign language” for purposes of high school graduation and college admission requirements. Some of the most important issues facing young Hmong Americans include not having access to quality and equitable educational opportunity and losing their ethnic and cultural identity and language as they go through school. The results are often low academic performance in school or dropping out altogether. These pressures also push many young Hmong Americans away from their families and their traditions and into negative live choices which further disrupt the Hmong community (Cha, 2010; O’Reilly, 1998). The Hmong migrations to the United States are recent. Therefore, studies of Hmong educational attainment and cultural endurance in the United States are fairly new. However educational researchers and especially new Hmong scholars are beginning to identify factors that contribute to the problems faced by this group of students and to their success. Vang’s (1998) study showed a correlation between cultural retention and students’ academic achievement. Hutchinson (1997) and Rumbaut (1989) reported that connectedness to Hmong culture positively affected educational performance of Hmong American youth. Moreover, Ngo and Lee (2007) report many findings that Hmong and other Southeast Asian students who adopt a strategy of accommodation without assimilation are the most successful (See also, McNall, et al., 1994 and Lee, 2005). This study is ground in Yosso’s (2005) theory of community cultural wealth. Yosso identifies six forms of community capital which together constitute a pool of community cultural wealth that minority students, such as the Hmong American students in this study can draw upon. The study employed both qualitative and quantitative analyses. These included statistical analysis of the relationship between participation in Hmong as World Language (HWL) instruction and other measures of high school success and in depth analysis of interviews and focus group dialogues with teachers of HWL and recent graduates who had taken HWL. Both quantitative and qualitative analyses found that taking HWL for two years had many positive outcomes for students and no identifiable negative consequences. Positive academic outcomes included improvements in high school GPA and increased skill and confidence performing academic work in all subjects. An additional educational outcome was students’ confidence and optimism about future educational and career plans. Positive outcomes for the students outside of school included strengthening their relationship with family, community and culture. Students born in the United States who took two years of HWL talked of coming back home to their Hmong identity and families. Students born in Thailand, recent arrivals from the closure of the last Vietnam era refugee camps, insisted that the HWL classes helped them learn how to navigate the system of American high school requirements. This study demonstrates the importance of incorporating the strengths of the Hmong American community into the education of their children and confirms the power of heritage language to bind a community together and to develop high level thinking in bilingual, bicultural students. The study concludes with recommendations for expanding the availability of Hmong language studies to other schools and grade levels with identifiable Hmong student populations and for further research on the educational journey of Hmong students in the United States and globally.
Title: The appropriate assistance for Hmong college students. Author: Wyler Yang. Source: M.A. Thesis, California State University, Sacramento. Location: Sacramento, CA. Year: 2012. Additional Source Information: N.A. Pagination: 132 pages Format: PDF
Abstract: Since the arrival of the Hmong in the United States as war refugees, they have been shadowed by the Asian Minority Success Myth (Ngo & Lee, 2007) which holds that all Asians and Asian Americans excel in the classroom. A Critical Race Theory analysis of this model and the varieties of Cultural Capital brought to this Acculturation process shows Hmong students at a disadvantage (Bourdieu, 1986; DePouw, 2012; Perna & Thomas, 2008; Rick, 1988). Other literature suggests hidden Cultural Capital, positive characteristics of Biculturation and positive outcomes of Hybridity can promote education success among minority students (Lowe, 2000; Rick, 1988; Yosso, 2005). Statement of Problem: Not all Hmong college students go through the same challenges. This study categorizes Hmong college students by various demographic variables to determine challenges they face from family, community, institution and self as they pursue their higher education. It explores what might be most supportive of Hmong college student success. Methodology: The researcher surveyed Hmong college students at one California university during the 2011-2012 academic year about the challenges they face in completing their college education and the resources they draw upon and the ways in which their path through college could be better supported. The students self-identified as Hmong and were contacted through the Hmong University Student Association. Participant responses were coded and analyzed to identify patterns of responses that pointed to common issues and to differences among subgroups within the Hmong students. Conclusions and Recommendations: Students surveyed were primarily from two categories: Adjusting-Animist-Male and Adjusting-Animist-Female. The greatest differences in responses were tied to gender, with males facing self-related challenges and females facing family-related challenges. Both faced institution-related challenges. Problems of support were tied more to difficulties in students reaching out for help rather than institutional refusal. Future research regarding Hmong college students should begin at the high school level, and study the intersections of culture, surroundings and self-concept as these affect Hmong students’ difficulties in reaching out to others in their educational environment.
Title: Hmong for Hmong Only - Hmong I: A Supplementary Reading Readiness Course Packet for Beginning College Hmong Students. Author: Lee Xiong. Source: MA Thesis, California State University, Chico. Location: Chico, CA. Year: 2012. Additional Source Information: N.A. Pagination: 153 pages Format: PDF
Abstract: The Hmong language was identified as an oral tradition in which the older generations orally taught values, morals, and ritual rites to the younger generations for thousands of years dated back to 2,500 B.C. in China. About 6 decades ago, a group of French-American missionaries and a linguist developed a writing system for the Hmong in Laos in 1950. It was identified as the Romanized Popular Alphabet (RPA script). The RPA script became the literacy for the Hmong. For the Hmong language, the RPA script is divided into three groups: consonants, vowels, and tone markers. The consonants are further categorized into four groups such as 18 single consonants, 22 double consonants, 14 triple consonants, and 3 quadruple consonants. There are a total of 57 Hmong consonants, 13 vowels, 6 mono-vowels, and 7 bi-vowels. There are eight tone markers that indicated the high, middle, and low pitch in each word that is spoken. These are the important elements of the Hmong literacy. Once a student has mastered the pronunciation of these individual letters she or he would be able to paste the letters to make words. The words could be formed into sentences. This researcher noticed the alphabet to be a problem for the Hmong American students because English and Hmong rely on the same alphabets, but different a phonetic guide. It is frustrating for many beginning Hmong American students when they first attempt to learn the language.
Title: Personal Story of a Hmong Student's Learning of Mathematics in School: A Case Study. Author: Moua Xiong. Source: MA Thesis, California State University, Chico. Location: Chico, CA. Year: 2012. Additional Source Information: N.A. Pagination: 117 pages Format: PDF
Abstract: This thesis examines the process of a Hmong student learning mathematics on the community college level. The researcher selected a Hmong student from Butte College to conduct an interview regarding his educational experience but focused mainly on mathematics. The interview took approximately eight weeks, and each interview took about an hour with three interviews performed each week. The researcher also interviewed the participant’s parents to gather information regarding their family background to support this Hmong student’s learning experience. The results indicated that this Hmong student learned mathematics in school by examples provided by the instructor. He relied on his memorization abilities to remember the mathematical-solving procedures. He practiced diligently to prepare himself to solve problems for in-class tests. The results also revealed that motivation was the key to inspire this Hmong student to go to school and to study. The participant identified five roots of motivation that inspired him to continue his education, especially in mathematics such as parent’s support, people’s admiration, desire to compete successfully in the classroom, interest in assisting others, and the desire to be a role model for younger siblings. This study showed that 78.97% of all mathematical word problems were translated into the Hmong language before translated into algebraic symbols. The other 21.03% was translated straight from the word problems written in English to algebraic equations by the participant. In addition, 81.48% of all the word problems, regardless of the English language structure, were translated word by word from left to right. The remaining18.52% of all the word problems was not translated from left to right due to the same English language structure. During the interviews, the researcher provided 31 word problems that came from four different types of mathematical word problems for the participant to solve. The accumulative percentages from all mathematical word problems performed by the participant were 64.5% correct vs. 35.5% incorrect. Moreover, this study revealed that the participant was able to get 1) 100% of all mathematical word problems written in Hmong language correct; 2) 80% of the mathematical word problems that the participant had correct was coming from left to right translation; 3) 20% was coming from basic English sentence structure; and 4) 0% correct from mathematical word problems written in English complex language structure. Accordingly, the translation of the written word into algebraic language created most errors due to language barriers for the participant.
Title: Perceptions of health care among Hmong Americans. Author: Stacy Thang Yang. Source: M.S.W. Thesis, California State University, Sacramento. Location: Sacramento, CA. Year: 2012. Additional Source Information: N.A. Pagination: 126 pages Format: PDF
Abstract: The Hmong immigrated to America as a result of various life threatening conditions that prevented them from being able to live an ordinary life. Despite the huge population of Hmong who have settled in California, Minnesota, Wisconsin and Michigan, they still experience challenges when utilizing the modern health care system and its services. This study explores Hmong Americans’ perceptions toward both traditional and modern health care and their utilization of these services. Participants in this study were Hmong American adults who are former refugees and immigrants from Laos and Thailand. The findings of this research study reveal that there are indeed challenges and obstacles that have prevented Hmong Americans from utilizing modern health care, as well as its services, such as different philosophies toward health and illness, providers’ lack of understanding about the Hmong’s cultural beliefs and/or practices, and lack of sufficient English comprehension skills to communicate with health care providers.
Title: Variables of high-performing Hmong English learners. Author: Tachua Vue. Source: PhD Dissertation, California State University, Fresno. Location: Fresno, CA. Year: 2011. Additional Source Information: N.A. Pagination: 130 pages. Format: PDF
Abstract: Across the nation, the growing number of non-English speaking students continues to increase. With the significant number of English Language Learners entering the school system, it is a cause for concern that these students are not performing academically at the same level as other students. An existing group of English Language Learners are Hmong students. Hmong English Learners, in particular, face challenges in their pursuit of academic success as a result of English as a second language. As one of the immigrant groups in the United
States, Hmong students are faced with many challenges in the school system, one of these challenges includes acquiring a second language. Presently, there is existing research pertaining to programs and issues of unsuccessful English Language Learners, but limited research on the factors that lead to the academic
success of English Language Learners. Therefore, a particular interest for this study was to examine the variables of high-performing English Language Learners in the K-12 educational sector, particularly for Hmong students. A qualitative study was conducted with a focus on gaining a deeper understanding of the various experiences of high-performing Hmong English Learners. The data from this study was gathered through interviews and document analysis, and the findings indicated that the overarching variables of high-performing Hmong
English Learners were teacher support, the act of balancing the two worlds they exist in, and self-determination.
Title: Hmong Americans and Healthcare Inequalities and Solutions. Author: Aurea Berger. Source: Senior Thesis, San Francisco State University. Location: San Francisco, CA. Year: 2011. Additional Source Information: N.A. Pagination: 51 pages Format: PDF
Abstract: The Hmong Americans are the newly added component of United States society. Due to lack of written language, exposure to harsh living conditions in refugee camps, and war, Hmong Americans’ adjustment to life in the United States has not been an easy process. As refugees, most of them have to rely on welfare for cash assistance and healthcare, especially the first generation immigrants. However, due to the existence of inequities in the US healthcare system as well as cutbacks on welfare budgets ─ many Hmong Americans ─ are without health insurance and are poorly served in the US healthcare system. The purpose of this research paper is to bring awareness to the existing problem that harms the health of the Hmong American community. Oral interviews, in-depth research, and questionnaires are used to investigate the problem regarding the ongoing healthcare issues that affect the Hmong American community. The findings of this research indicate that the Hmong Americans are indeed being served poorly in the US healthcare system because of lack of interpreter service (i.e. translator), conflict between the Hmong traditional healing methods and the Western health practices, and the lack of understanding by the Western health providers of Hmong American culture.
Title: Suspended Between Languages: Stories From the Biliterate Lives of Hmong Generation 1.5 University Women. Author: Kim Huster. Source: PhD Dissertation, Indiana University of Pennsylvania. Location: Indiana, PA. Year: 2011. Additional Source Information: N.A. Pagination: 373 pages Format: PDF
Abstract: U.S. higher education institutions are enrolling increasing numbers of long-term immigrant students, who belong to Generation 1.5. Essentially beginning college while still in the process of learning English, these students often struggle in higher education, and they present new challenges to college writing instructors. This study explored the literacy and language development experiences of thirteen Generation 1.5 Hmong women in a California university. Because of the complexity and multi-faceted nature of literacy and language, a qualitative research methodology, which combined aspects of narrative inquiry and feminist ethnography, was implemented for this investigation. Data was gathered through journal writing, group discussions, and one-on-one interviews. The participants were encouraged to take an active role in determining the focus and direction of the research, and their descriptions of their experiences were enhanced by their interactions with each other. The product of the data collection process was a compilation of short narratives, in the women's own words, which described the educational and literacy journeys of each of the participants individually and provided a broader perspective on their collective experience as a minority population. These stories were organized and analyzed using a framework developed by Nancy Hornberger (2003) and revealed that the literacy development of Hmong women often occupied the less powerful ends of Hornberger's continua of biliteracy. Their stories demonstrated that their language use was heavily influenced by the literacy and language use in their homes, as well as their families' values concerning education and the role of women in their culture. In addition, their opportunities to use English were often limited to classroom situations in which their literacy development was hampered by marginalizing experiences with teachers and classmates. Despite their long history in this country, these Hmong college women remained suspended between two cultures and languages. In the final chapter, the author proposes three ways that educators might address the critical issues revealed by these stories: by educating, supporting, and establishing teachers to be agents for social change; by promoting the appropriate attitudes toward multiculturalism in U.S. schools; and by legitimizing the minority experience within the U.S. educational system.
Title: Hmong Heritage Language Program at the Secondary Level at its Impact on Hmong Student Academic Achievement. Author: Ya Po Cha. Source: MA Thesis, California State University, Sacramento. Location: Sacramento, CA. Year: 2010. Additional Source Information: N.A. Pagination: 71 pages Format: PDF
Abstract: The Hmong heritage language program at Lucky Banks High School has been implemented for over eight years. How has this program helped Hmong students improve their academic achievement? The methodology used in this study is a combination of quantitative analysis of student academic records and qualitative data collected from asurvey of Hmong high school seniors at Lucky Banks High School. There isa strong correlation between the number of years of Hmong heritage language students have taken and their level academic achievement. However,further studies are needed to directly link academic achievement to participation in the heritage language program at Lucky Banks High School.
Title: A Personal Tale of Self-Reflection by a Hmong English Teacher Forming a High School Leadership Club to Enhance Hmong Adolescents in Their Search for Personal Identity. Author: Ellen Moua Hamilton. Source: MA Thesis, California State University, Chico. Location: Chico, CA. Year: 2010. Additional Source Information: N.A. Pagination: 116 pages Format: PDF
Abstract: The purpose of this project is to create a handbook by creating a high school leadership club for Hmong students, to enhance their search for personal identity as they relate it to my own personal tale of self-reflection. In order to create my own personal tale and a leadership club to enhance Hmong adolescents, a background knowledge base had to be established in the review of literature. This background knowledge base consisted of adolescent identity, Hmong adolescents, Hmong culture, after-school programs and clubs, and leadership with a focus on self-reflection. Each section in Chapter II of this project amplifies the need for understanding oneself through family involvement, relationships, cultural loss, language loss, etc, for the search of personal identity. Through the background knowledge base established in the review of literature, the creation of my self-reflection was able to take form. The reflection is about growing up in two worlds; the Hmong world and the American world. The book is the self-reflection of my search for personal identity and is used to help enhance Hmong adolescents in understanding their search for personal identity. The book is titled, Washed Away Story of a First Generation Hmong Woman in America, and is recommended by the author to use in secondary levels to understand what it is to be Hmong living in two worlds, revolving around the themes of language loss, biculturalism, acculturation, assimilation, and simply finding out who we truly are.
Title: Hmong parent understanding of ear health. Author: Janene Griffin. Source: M.S. Thesis, California State University, Sacramento. Location: Sacramento, CA. Year: 2010. Additional Source Information: N.A. Pagination: 162 pages Format: PDF
Abstract: This ethnographic study concerns the incidence of hearing loss and other ear pathology for Hmong students of a Sacramento school district as identified by the school nurse researchers. The study sought to determine the Hmong parent understanding of ear health including ear anatomy, causes of illness and traditional care practices and utilization of western health care providers. The school nurse researchers conducted parent interviews using a Hmong interpreter over a ten-month time frame. Transcriptions of the audiotaped interviews were coded and analyzed for categories, patterns and themes. Identified patterns and themes were confirmed through further interviews until data saturation was obtained. Themes identified included communication and acculturation difficulties, knowledge deficit of ear anatomy and causes of ear pathology, misunderstanding of medical diagnoses and care and dual utilization of traditional and modern health care modalities. Findings affirmed that the school nurse stands in a unique position to assist Hmong families to improve their understanding and management of ear conditions and hearing loss.
Title: Rituals, Roles and Responsibilities included in a Hmong Funeral: A Guidebook for Teachers to Better Understand the Process their Hmong Students Experience in a Time of Family Loss. Author: Kirk Lee. Source: MA Thesis, California State University, Chico. Location: Sacramento, CA. Year: 2009. Additional Source Information: N.A. Pagination: 78 pages Format: PDF
Abstract: The number of Hmong families in Butte County has increased in recent years, which has resulted in an increase of Hmong students attending local schools. However, the community at large is still unfamiliar with the Hmong culture, especially the funeral ritual. When there is a loss in the family, the students need to take time off from schools or related activities. Without knowing these students’ family background and cultural custom, teachers and school staff often do not understand their students’ roles in the grieving process during this time of loss in the Hmong culture, the funeral ritual is a very important event. During this time of passing, all family members, including children are expected to participate. It is important that the Hmong students take time off from school functions to honor their par-ents’ tradition, pay respect to the deceased, and offer condolences to immediate family members. However, as a member in the Hmong community, I have observed students take lengthy absences from school to participate in these funerary rituals, which have raised many concerns from teachers and school staff. This project is an attempt to explain students’ roles and responsibilities during the funeral rituals. At the end of this project, there are several recommendations teachers and school staff could utilize when they are confronted in these situations.
Title: New Mountain, New River, New Home? The Tasmanian Hmong. Author: Margaret Eldrige. Source: M.S. Thesis, University of Tasmania. Location: Tasmania, Australia. Year: 2008. Additional Source Information: N.A. Pagination: N.A. Format: PDF
Abstract: This study examines the first group of largely preliterate refugees resettled in Tasmania after the 1975 Communist takeover of Laos. Hill tribe people, the Tasmanian Hmong left Laos and spent years in Thai refugee camps. This thesis examines the possible reasons for their secondary migration to various locations in Queensland. Their departure from Tasmania raised questions about why this apparently well-settled community left the island. For example, many people assumed it was because of Tasmania’s cool climate. The thesis creates a context in which to examine the Hmong’s motivation to leave the island state, with reference to theories of migration, diaspora and globalisation. Oral histories draw out the stories of individual Hmong, their involvement in the Secret War in Indo-China, the escape from Laos, life in Thai refugee camps, their resettlement in Tasmania and subsequent departure for Queensland. Hmong informants include those remaining in Tasmania, those who left for Queensland and those who later returned to Tasmania. These interviews are balanced with voices of professionals and volunteers involved in settlement of the Hmong. Participant observation and itinerant ethnography have been employed, making use of everyday opportunities to collect information from which to develop ideas and to explain the secondary migration of the Hmong. This ‘history from below’, places value on the stories of ordinary people as a valuable resource. The research concludes that, in addition to the desire to create a mega-community of Hmong in Queensland — in an attempt to counter loss of tradition and culture, and build Hmong cohesiveness — secondary migration was influenced by a desire for family reunification and a strong economic motive. It demonstrates that secondary migration is typical of many refugee communities. In particular, the secondary migrations observed in diasporic Hmong communities have parallels with migrations of Hmong from China and with traditional movements in Laos, where swidden agriculture requires establishment of new villages when depleted soil or sickness affects settlements. The research is important because there has been little recorded about the Hmong community in Tasmania, nor about other Australian Hmong communities. Since the once vibrant Hobart community is now a remnant population, it is important to place on record its story as part of recent social history. In examining a refugee community such as the Hmong, this thesis offers an investigation of the circumstances of becoming refugees, an analysis of settlement experiences and an exploration into the context and reasons for secondary migration. In addition, it provides an entry into comparative research on other refugee communities, which has relevance for those who work with refugees and are interested in their demographics.
Title: Appropriating the Unspoken Text: Development Discourse and Hmong Women in Lao People’s Democratic Republic. Author: Kimberly C. Mendonca. Source: Ed.D. Dissertation, University of San Francisco. Location: San Francisco, CA. Year: 2009. Additional Source Information: N.A. Pagination: 158 pages. Format: PDF
Abstract: Development, from a broad perspective, is neither new nor uncommon. As a result of media attention, Westerners are becoming more versed on global development challenges to reduce poverty, hunger and disease. Some of the world’s most famous actors have become activists and now serve as spokespeople for organizations that promote development. However, missing from these efforts is clear understanding of the unique needs and desires of various people of the world and, as a result, the best way to assist them in the fulfillment of those needs often remains unexplored.This research investigated development in Laos. More specifically, it studied the concepts of development through an interpretive approach as they affect the women in the Hmong community. This research was conducted from the perspective of interpretive anthropology with selected theories drawn from a critical hermeneutic orientation. The specific process and protocols were appropriated from Herda’s (1999: 85-138) orientation to participatory hermeneutic inquiry. Ricoeur’s (1984, 1985, 1988) theories of narrative identity, mimesis and action provided the framework for exploration of the research inquiry and helped to give voice a place in identity. The findings of this research focus on changing the lens from which leadership is viewed; shifting the way development from being seen as a linear process to one that is understood as an interpretative process, and refocusing on the essential goals of development. ivThe significance of this research is the creation of a public space to give voice to Hmong women, a marginalized group both because of their ethnicity and their gender. The project broadens the dialogue about strategies and shapes new ideas of development. The stories of the Hmong women serve as a catalyst for further discourse about development as well as empowering and fundamentally improving the status of the Hmong women, their families and their communities.
Title: The communication of verbal content on the Hmong Raj : an ethnographic analysis of performance practice. Author: Nicholas Poss. Source: MA Thesis, Ohio State University. Location: Columbus, OH. Year: 2005. Additional Source Information: N.A. Pagination: 176 pages. Format: PDF
Abstract: First generation members of the diasporic Hmong-American community continue the practice of communicating verbal content on a variety of instruments, including raj , a family of aerophones. Based on field research with White Hmong (Hmoob Dawb) residents of Wisconsin and Minnesota, this thesis provides an in-depth ethnographic account of raj performance in America. Through interview, participant observation, musical transcription, and computer analysis of recordings, the relationship between words and musical sound is investigated and contextualized in performance. Building on the work of Eric Mareschal and Amy Catlin, multiple levels of communication in raj performances are investigated, moving beyond previous descriptions based on the "speech surrogate" model. Although an instrument for courtship in Laos and Thailand, raj performances in America are most likely to occur at Hmong New Year celebrations or at private family gatherings. Utilizing consistent relationships between lexical tone and musical pitch, performers extemporaneously manipulate conventional and formulaic phrases into personal expressions within a limited range of topics. Skilled listeners interpret verbal content in familiar melodic contours and rhythmic patterns. Associations between the sound of words (lexical tone) and sets of pitches, different across various raj and between scales played on a single raj, serve to clarify ambiguous content. Still, performances and interpretations of performances are rarely word-for-word. Rather, performers develop motor patterns for favorite expressions that are understood on multiple levels as performances unfold. Ornamentation, breath control, and precise fingering add beauty to performances and communicate the skill and cultural knowledge (txawj) of the performer. Thus performances are more than instances of "speech surrogacy" as defined by Theodore Stern. In this way, the raj remains relevant for new generations of. Hmong-Americans who, due to lack of experience or familiarity with the Hmong language, cannot understand the underlying words. Furthermore, this deeper understanding of raj performances can inform future research on the relationship between language and music in Hmong culture as well as provide a starting point for the investigation of connections between lexical tone and musical pitch in cognition.
Title: Hmong Visual, Oral, and Social Design: Innovation within a Frame of the Familiar. Author: Judy Lewis. Source: M.A. Thesis, Sacramento State University. Location: Sacramento, CA. Year: 1993. Additional Source Information: N.A. Pagination: 176 pages. Format: PDF
Abstract: Hmong social organizationhas been described in prior research as one based on patrilineal kinship and shifting cultivation, and characterized by cross-cousin marriage, virilocal residence, and strong patriarchy. The social pattern is influenced by available land, applicable and available agricultural methods, methods for obtaining cash and entering a market economy, the proximity of kin, ties with affinal groups, the whims of “fortune,” the actions of spirits and the well-being of ancestors. For the Hmong in the United States are added the constraints of vocational opportunity, family size, increased interaction between members of a patriline and non-Hmong, and increased understanding of Hmong in a wider social context. Past research on Hmong social organization places primacy on the environment and obligatory kinship relationships in the overall pattern of social groups. The work of Mary Douglas suggests that a group’s social patterns are revealed in the patterns that characterize the various forms of cultural expression. Nicholas Tapp and Patricia Symonds have contributed to the understanding of the role of oral history, ritual details, identity maintenance, and gender differences in social design over time and space.The purpose of this thesis is to examine four cultural expressions (stitchery, sung poetry, elaborate expressions, and folktales) for an underlying structural pattern that links them in “Hmongness,” and to look at the process by which innovation is accommodated. The pattern and process will then be compared to the Hmong social organization as described in the literature, and as found in one Hmong caj ceg(patriline)and pab pawg(collaborative group) as conceptualized by one of its members.The conclusion is that visual and oral expressions can be characterized as successive frames, expressed in oppositions or contrasts, surrounding a meaningful “kernel” at the center. The compositions are innovative juxtapositions of familiar core elements that are identifiably “Hmong.” Likewise, social groups can be visualized frames within frames, surrounding a kernel group—a family, at its most elemental, the daughter-in-law and her husband—surrounded by successive frames of identity. The social group is not defined by external factors, but is an active and creative manipulation by individuals acting within groups.The design emerges from core elements (kinship, marriage, chance encounter, and reciprocal obligation), creating a design that is recognizably “Hmong” and will bring reputation and renown to the group. In general, the creation of textile design is the work of women, while the creation of social designs is the work of men, and both create sung poetry
Title: Journeys, Boundaries, Maps, Paths, and Paradigms: The Decorah Hmong and the Decorah Native. Author: Marilyn Anderson. Source: M.A. Synthesis, Hamline University. Location: St. Paul, MN. Year: 1991. Additional Source Information: N.A. Pagination: 119 pages. Format: PDF
Abstract: The Hmong are a distinct Asian people who, for thousands of years, dwelled in China, and then, more recently, in Laos, Thailand, and Vietnam. The Vietnam War caused thousands of Hmong to be displaced, and many came to the United States. This paper describes the decade-long resettlement of Hmong refugees in Decorah, a small town in Iowa. The history of the Hmong is told, and aspects of Hmong culture, including marriage and religion, are discussed. Efforts made by the Decorah Hmong to preserve their culture, and interactions between Hmong and long-time Decorah residents are examined. Much of the paper is a first-person narrative comprised of personal experiences with the Hmong as an English-as-a-Second-Language instructor, on extensive interviews with the Hmong, and on wide reading in anthropology and other social sciences. A lengthy list of references is included.
Abstract: The Hmong are a distinct Asian people who, for thousands of years, dwelled in China, and then, more recently, in Laos, Thailand, and Vietnam. The Vietnam War caused thousands of Hmong to be displaced, and many came to the United States. This paper describes the decade-long resettlement of Hmong refugees in Decorah, a small town in Iowa. The history of the Hmong is told, and aspects of Hmong culture, including marriage and religion, are discussed. Efforts made by the Decorah Hmong to preserve their culture, and interactions between Hmong and long-time Decorah residents are examined. Much of the paper is a first-person narrative comprised of personal experiences with the Hmong as an English-as-a-Second-Language instructor, on extensive interviews with the Hmong, and on wide reading in anthropology and other social sciences. A lengthy list of references is included.